Timeline of History in the Penistone Parish

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History Timeline Pages
These pages are quite often updated. Most sources are not primary and might contain conjecture. They are mostly taken from secondary sources such as almanacks, book references and other occasional sources. The most recent updates are highlighted, so you don't have to search much if you've been here before.

English Calendar Change
Please note that England belatedly changed from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1751-1752, long after most other countries. (See 1751). This put the earlier dates eleven days 'out of sync.' with the current calendar. Also, the legal start of each new year (and the start of the tax year) had been on Lady Day, 25th March, with the year dates being hyphenated between 1st January and Lady Day.

For example, Wm Shakespeare died 23rd April 1616 and it would be written as 23rd April 1615-16 but, if he had died a month later, it would be written as 23rd May 1616. The modern UK Tax Year is still based on the old system, with the eleven-day discrepancy added to Lady Day to place it on 6th April every year. It is explained in detail on Paul Lewis's site.

A Note on Quarter and Cross-Quarter Dates
Four dates (quarter days) were typically used for legal purposes, such as hiring servants and paying rents and to make sure that all debts were cleared and recorded as such. They fell on four religious festivals about three months apart and close to the solstices and equinoxes. Some property matters still use these dates. Before the move from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1752, Lady Day was the first day of the year (and Tax Year) in British dominions (excluding Scotland which had earlier adopted 1st January).

Cross-quarter days were observed in northern England as Quarter Days until the 18th century:

'Kal', 'Nons' and 'Ides' in Old Documents
These terms refer to dates in old ecclesiastical documents, based on the Roman calendar. Wikipedia has a very full description but the gist is that each month was divided into three fixed points, the Nons ('non'), Kalends ('Kal') and Ides ('id'). Their position in the month varied by a day or two according to the length of the month. The dates have Roman numerals preceding, such that, for example, 2nd April would be named 'IV non', counting down (3rd = III non, 4th = II non) to 5th April = non. The 9th would be 'V id' (five before the Ides, which is the 13th for this month). We all know that the 'Ides of March' is the 15th day of that month.

Regnal Dates Converter
Early English legal documents give the year as the number of years in the reign of the particular monarch of the time.
A private website has a useful Regnal Date Converter to extract the actual year from the Regnal year.

Sources Used in the Timeline Pages
The Books:

Some small details were also added from 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone & District', 2006, a few leaflets describing local walks and some anecdotal remarks from Penistone people. Where information is anecdotal, it has been marked as such.

The 2013 re-issue of 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone' retained the interesting historic articles of earlier issues and can be found in Penistone Library.

Gaps to Fill
There are some gaps in important events which I would welcome help with:

If you are on Facebook, please visit these groups: Penistone Archives - PGS Archive.

Just for interest:

Webpage Notes:

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