Timeline of History in the Penistone Area


Penistone

AD 1800 - AD 1900
Year Date Event
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate English calendar for year: Time & Date
1801 1st Jan. A New Century? As with the end of the twentieth century, there was much debate about exactly when one century was supposed to end and the next one to start. The Times and other newspapers took the point of view that the new century started on 1st January 1801, not 1800. Ref 7.
  The Census Begins. Although various attempts had previously been made to assess the population of the country, with variable results, this was the year that the Census started, under Mr William Pitt's administration. It would be repeated each decade on the year ending with a '1'. The population of England and Wales was ascertained to be 8,892,536.
1803 27th June Opening of new organ at Penistone Church, erected in a gallery at the west end. Ref 16. See also the Church History page.
1804   Penistone Agricultural Society established. Ref 7. Wortley had held ploughing matches around this time but Penistone Show did not arrive until 1854.
1805 15th Aug Local Volunteer Soldiers Muster. At a time of expected invasion by the French, local volunteers responded to the call of duty and marched to Hemsworth on this day. The numbers were: 20 volunteers from Thurlstone, 14 from Thurgoland and six from Penistone. They were supporting the standing army in preparing to do battle against the French. Ref 31 p21.
1806   Denby occupations. According to records there were 63 weavers, 12 clothiers, a dyer, a dresser, a slubber, and a cotton spinner in the village of Denby. A quote from Denby CC's history (pdf).
1807   Bells of Penistone Church appear to have been re-hung this year, as an expenditure of £62 18s 5d is included in the Accounts for the bells in that year. Ref 26.
  Hans Winthrop Mortimer died, Lord of the Manor of Bamford. It was he who turnpiked 'Mortimer's Road' in the mid 1770s, which continues to this day. It was a carrier's route from Penistone Bridge to Grindleford.
  Bethel Chapel built in Hoylandswaine. Believed to be the oldest remaining New Connexion Methodist Chapel in the country and still being used for worship. The stone inscription calls it 'Beathel Chapel'. Known in recent times as Hoylandswaine Methodist Church, it held its last Carol Service in 2013.
1808   First Wesleyan Chapel built in Penistone, costing £150 to build. It was later found to be too small and a new chapel was opened in 1873. The old chapel was converted into dwellings and became numbers 2224 High Street, opposite the current 'Adore' gift shop. The founder and trustee, John Hardy, surgeon, died in 1817 aged 67. In keeping with biblical tradition, he gave a tithe of one tenth of his income to acts of charity and religious institutions, telling his children that "The more he gave the more he got." See 1872. Ref 5. See also the Chapels page.
1810s   Luddites - These were active during this decade. They destroyed factory textile machinery in an effort to protect their home employment in textiles. Welsh Regiment soldiers were stationed for a time in Penistone (most likely on standby).
1810   POW - John Spencer-Stanhope of Cannon Hall, Cawthorne was a Prisoner of War of the French between 1810 and 1813. Held at Barcelona, Verdun and Paris. Ref 31 p22.
10th Jun John Hague of Penistone commits suicide by blowing up his house. Ref 26.
  Sunday School started at Netherfield Chapel. Ref 5.
1811   St Leonard's Church at Wortley was re-roofed and possibly had it raised. See 1753.
  The Census. The population of England and Wales was ascertained to be 10,164,256, an increase of 1,271,720 over the 1801 result.
  Population of Penistone Parish was 4.321. Ref 11.
1812 26th Mar Meeting of creditors under a Commission of Bankrupt awarded and issued forth against George and Thomas Roebuck, clothiers, dealers, chapmen and co-partners, of Hunshelf. This took place at 3pm 'at the house of William Dagley, the Rose and Crown Inn, Penistone.' This was to effect an agreement with George Brown, stonemason of Penistone, for the sale of a parcel of land in Hunshelf, part of the bankrupts' real estate. Notice the date is the day after Lady Day. See 1751 and notes about quarter days on the Timeline page.
  Thurlstone Inclosure. Common lands in Thurlstone were enclosed through an Act of Parliament (52 George iii). From Ref 30.
  Midhope Corn Mill burnt out. (Ref 7)
  Thurlstone Commons enclosed, 1812 to 1816. Ref 1 and Ref 5. See S Yorks Timescapes to read about the effects of enclosing the commons.
1813   A Sunday School started in Penistone. Ref 5.
1814   Hoylandswaine Village Hall Built. Its original purpose was for a Sunday School with pupils of all ages. The Methodist Church took it over in 1893. With a dwindling congregation and few children, it was bought in 1982 by the people of Hoylandswaine for use as the Village Hall. The hall was completely refurbished following the acquisition of a National Lottery grant in AD 2003. H V Hall.
1815   Second Denby Dale Pie baked, to celebrate the Duke of Wellington’s Victory at the Battle of Waterloo and the peace between England and France after being at war for twenty-three years. The pie contained half a sheep, twenty fowls and 'half a pack of flour.' The Corn Law Act was also introduced this year, sowing the seeds of the third DD Pie in 1846. See also 1788 for the first Denby Dale Pie.
  Bear Baiting in Penistone. Penistone Church Warden Accounts had reserved 4s 10d towards preventing the practise. Notes from 'Remarkable Occurrences and Interesting Dates' J Wood 1890, passed on by Cllr Brenda Hinchliffe, for which my thanks are given.
1816   Thomasson's Cloth Mill founded in Plumpton, Thurlstone. It was renowned for its livery cloth enjoyed by European royalty. The mill closed in 1931, following the slump which followed the Wall Street Crash in the USA.
1817 10th April New clock fitted to Penistone Church tower on Easter Sunday at a cost of £87. It had only one face until 1924, when Shrewsbury Road took over from Church Street as the main road. There had also been a previous clock on the tower for many years. There is a reference to an earlier clock being repaired in 1698. See that year, 1924 and the Penistone Church History page.
1818   Oxspring Enclosure. A private Act of Parliament authorised the enclosure of the 250 or so acres of common land. Oxspring had been mentioned in the Domesday book of 1086 but the location of the original Oxspring settlement is not known. The most likely site is that of the former Manor House, in a commanding position on an outcrop of shale above the river. Oxspring Parish Council possesses a copy of the enclosure award and map, which were completed eight years later in 1826. Before this it had been possible to walk all the way from Oxspring to Thurlstone over common moorland. See 'A Background History of Oxspring' on the Oxspring parish website, written by local historian, Prof. David Hey and abridged from his work of the same name.
1819   Enclosure of Penistone Common and the Race Common (an area above Cubley). Ref 5. Referred to in S Yorks Timescapes and again see S Yorks Timescapes to read about the effects of enclosing the commons. Also in Ref 30.
  Some unspecified alterations were made to Denby Chapel (opened 1627), which had been falling into disrepair.
1820s   John Hawley starts his timber business in Penistone.
1820 3rd Feb The Association for the Prosecution of Felons and Misdoers was formed. It continued until the last few years of this century. According to JN Dransfield, 'the chief and principal occupation of its annual meetings was eating a good dinner.' (Ref 7 p.138)
1821 1st Mar Death of William Dagley, former landlord of the Rose and Crown, aged 68 years. From his gravestone outside Penistone Church.
  Girls' Free School built on Church Street with a house for the Schoolmistress, part-funded by the National School Society and money subscribed by the parishioners. It was 'conducted as a National School and attended by about eighty girls, who paying 1d per week, except twenty belonging to Penistone Township, are instructed as free scholars'. The children were to be instructed in Reading, Sewing, Knitting and other Proper and Useful learning. It required a new or re-elected schoolmistress every two years. Around 120 girls attended the school. Josias Wordsworth's will of 1732 had provided for the education of ten or twelve girls. This was passed on to the school, which allowed for a further twenty girls to be taught there. Details from Ref 19 p. 312. Also Ref 4, pp. 321, 322.
  The Census. The population of England and Wales was ascertained to be 12,000,236. Penistone Parish had 5,042 inhabitants, with 645 in the township of Penistone. The Parish of Penistone comprised also the townships of Denby, Gunthwaite, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Langsett, Oxspring, and Thurlstone. Thurlstone had 1,599 inhabitants at this time and Ingbirchworth 371 inhabitants. Thurlstone had more than double the population of Penistone.
  Road constructed from Hazlehead Bar to The Flouch. Ref 1.
21st Sept The 'first' Holmfirth Flood.
1822   The Star public house opens in Upper Denby.
  Victuallers listed in the 1822 Directory:
Mary Jackson
at the White Hart, Joseph Beford at the Old Crown, George Brown at Horns Coffee House and Tavern, Marmaduke Clark at the Spread Eagle, Ann Green at the Black Swan, Edmund Smith at the Rose and Crown, William Bagshaw at the Plough and Harrow, William Earnshaw at the Black Bull, Benjamin Harrap at the Dog and Partridge, J Sanderson at the Waggon and Horses (could be either Oxspring or Langsett), Thomas Taylor at Saltersbrook and J Whitaker at the Blacksmith's Arms. These were listed in a Penistone Almanack of around 1877. See the Old Inns page.
1823 January Penistone Girls' National School opened on Church Street. Ref 1 (p165), Ref 16 and Ref 30.
1825   A new canal was being considered from Sheffield to Manchester, passing through Penistone, Woodhead and Longdendale Valley. The eminent engineer, Thomas Telford, considered this to be the best route. Ref 7
  The Wordsworth Estates in Penistone, Hoylandswaine and Denby sold. These included the Cloth Hall (Mr Wordsworth called it 'the Market House') consisting of a dwelling house (John Hawksworth), Carpenter's shop (Richard Scholefield), Chamber (John Charlesworth), Another chamber (Joseph Hellewell) and several butchers' stalls (J Beaumont and others). Ref 13 p.73
  Bullhouse Chapel Sunday School started.
1826   Enclosure, by Act of Parliament, of around 250 acres of common land in Oxspring completed (awarded in 1818) and other parts of the locality. According to Oxspring wiki, the Parish Council possesses a copy of the award and map. See S Yorks Timescapes to read about the effects of enclosing the commons.
  Remarkably Dry Year - with no rain between 21st March and 23rd September. Ref 16 and 1878 Pen Almanack.
1827   Originally intended to be called the 'New Inn', the Flouch Inn was opened around this year, after standing in a partly-finished state for some years. Landlord George Heward had a deformity called 'slouch lip', which by the usual process of corruption led to the pub's name. Ref 5. See the Inns History page.
  Denby Workhouse founded. It continued until it closed around 1849. The Penistone Poor Law Union Workhouse, built in 1859, took in the poor from Denby workhouse (and other places) until after the Second World War. Ref 20.
  Doles:
William Turton
gave one quarter of rye to the poor of Penistone, to be distributed yearly on Good Friday. The rye is rendered by the persons in the occupation of an estate at Hexley Gate in the township of Denby (in 1898 occupied by Mr Walter Popplewell). Also donations to the poor of the parish from Edward Booth out of lands at Dean Head, Hunshelf, £1 6s 8d to be paid at Easter. William Rich, by Will, (1673) charged certain lands in Hornthwaite with the payment of 1/- a year to the poor of the parish. The above Doles are duly distributed among poor persons of the parish not receiving parochial relief.
In recent times, this led to the distribution of flour from the Town Hall steps on Good Friday. This was later modified to the flour being distributed from the garden area of the church yard, by the mayor of Penistone at Easter. Doles from the 'Charity Report of 1827' (West Riding and Sheffield, p. 312), viewable in Huddersfield Local History library. To view other old charitable sources, see the Charity Commission website and follow the trustees' links. Start with William Rich, Reg Ch. 241891. See my Customs page.
1828   Oxspring New Corn Mill opened with the holding of a ball. It belonged to Mr Henry Rolling. It lasted only 28 years, having burnt out on 8th February 1856. Corn mills had a high fire risk. (Ref 7)
1829   Wesleyan Methodist chapel built in Ingbirchworth. Closed in 2014.
1830   The 'Beerhouse Act' passed in parliament allowed licenced 'Beer Houses' to proliferate without the need for a magistrate to endorse the application. The existing 'Ale Houses' could sell other liquors as well. See also the Old Inns page.
  Carlecotes School built. Now a guesthouse, the old schoolhouse was purchased with money raised in the community. A door lintel is inscribed with: 'School built by Subscription 1830'.
  Around this time, give or take a few years, the Huddersfield road by Netherfield Chapel (now a dwelling) was altered. Formerly level, the road was lowered by the chapel and the spoil used to raise the level 'by the house'. It is not clear what the road was like before. The milestone in the chapel wall used to be at the top of the hill, by the chapel. It reads: London 177 miles, Huddersfield 12, Penistone ½. Ref 7
1831   The Census. The population of England and Wales was ascertained to be 13,896,797. Penistone Parish had 5,201 inhabitants, with 703 in the township of Penistone. This was an increase over the previous decade of 159 in the parish and 58 in the township. The Parish of Penistone comprised also the townships of Denby, Gunthwaite, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Langsett, Oxspring, and Thurlstone. The population of Denby Parish was given as 1,295, possibly including Cumberworth and the hamlet of Denby Dale.
1834   Population of Denby given as 1,766. See Genuki. In October 1834, the Houses of Parliament were destroyed by fire. Among the items lost were the objects that defined the imperial standards of length and mass.
1836 27th Dec. A great snowstorm causes disruption throughout the land. Only one coach road in the kingdom was left open, from London to Portsmouth. Wagons from Oxspring corn mills to Saltersbrook were stuck in Boardhill snow drifts for several weeks. From Ref 7 and the same text appears on this Sheffield History page.
1837 Jan. -
Feb.
Influenza Epidemic afflicts 'nearly every house in Sheffield' and closes shops in Glasgow. Some of the remedies appeared to have been somewhat experimental, with such as: sweet nitre, paregoric, ipecacuana wine or 'theriaca et butyrum' (treacle and butter). Ref 7
  Registration Act for Births, Marriages and Deaths. Although the 1833 Factory Act had restricted working hours for young people, there were sparse official records listing ages of occupants. Anglican churches had long recorded baptisms, marriages, and burials but non-Anglicans had fewer records. This legislation led to the compulsory registration of all births, marriages and deaths at a Registry Office. Certificates were issued for each event, with a copy at Somerset House in London. The Poor Law Commission administered this Act. There had been Parish Registers of the poor from 1552, as an official record of those who fell into the category of 'poor' but this new act improved the quality of records. See the Victorian Web about the Poor Law.
  Bishop Longley visited the old chapel of Denby and found it to be in a 'filthy and ruinous state'. This led to a Building Committee to be formed to consider the chapel's future, under the guidance of Revd Brice Bronwin. They decided to rebuild the chapel on the same site, with the £1170 contract going to builder John Ellis, of High Flatts. The new chapel with the original 1627 tower was completed in 1845.
1839   The New Inn public house opens in Upper Denby.
12th Jan The 'Old Blue Club' formed. Officially called 'Penistone and Midhope Operative Conservative Benefit Association', it is hardly surprising that it had acquired a much simpler nickname. Its declared principles were: 'The continuance of social order, the security of property, the maintenance of religion and the real liberties of the people'. It also provided for a sick fund, with a large membership and ample funds. However, in a well-attended 1889 anniversary meeting in Midhope, there were some concerns that it might dissolve into becoming just another 'sick club' and they hoped to encourage more leading Conservatives to become involved. Ref 7
1840   Penistone Association for the Prosecution of Felons - Penistone Members: Jonathan Brown, Wm Lockwood, Wm Moorhouse, John Armitage, Wm Greaves, John Mitchell, Thos. Worsley, Jane Mitchell. Thurlstone Members: Joseph Greaves, Gamaliel Milner, John Crosland Milner, Edward Eyre, Thos. Smith, Wm Moorhouse, John Wainwright, Thos. Askam, Isaac Smith, Daniel Wainwright, Thomas Tomasson, Wm Wainwright, Geo Shaw, Wm Charlesworth, Benjamin Hudson. Rough Birchworth Member: Wm Beckett. Hunshelf Members: Jonathan Hawkesworth, Joseph Coldwell, Thos. Coldwell. Treasurer: Vincent Smith. From a poster dated 7th July 1840 (Penistone Archive Group):
1841   Thurgoland Church built on land given by Lord Wharncliffe. It cost £1400 and Lord W contributed £100 to it. The living was in the gift of the Vicar of Silkstone.
  Population of Penistone Parish now 5,907. Ref 11. Penistone had a large population of 'navvies' building the railway during this decade, sometimes leading to fighting in the streets. The population fell within the Penistone Poor Law Union which was formed in 1849. It included surrounding villages and reached 12,803, with parishes ranging from Gunthwaite (66) to Thurlstone (1,872). Ref 27. This was a result of the Poor Law Amendment Act (PLAA - 1839) following on from the 1832 Reform Act. The PLAA was intended to reduce the poor rates; not to assist the poor who suffered as a result of the legislation. The PLAA replaced the existing poor laws and was responsible for workhouses being set up throughout the country. Penistone's Poor Law Union led to a workhouse being built at Netherfield, now the site of the latest incarnation of Penistone Grammar School. The poor were regarded as feckless criminals and people would rather starve than apply for poor relief because it would mean that they would become inmates of the dreaded "poor law bastilles". See the Victorian Web about the Poor Law.
1843   Penistone's oldest business started this year. JT Smith's shop is now on the fourth generation since it started.
  Application to Parliament for an Act to authorise 'the making and maintaining of a railway, with all proper works and conveniences therewith, commencing by a junction with the line of the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway, in the township of Oxspring'. The line was to pass through ' ... parts of Penistone, Silkstone, Darton, Roystone, Oxspring, Thurgoland, Dodworth, Barugh, Gawber, Barnsley, Monk Bretton otherwise Burton, and some of them, and terminating by a junction with the North Midland Railway, in the said township of Carlton (etc.)'. In effect, it was an Act to instigate purchase of the appropriate land, by compulsion or agreement. This entry was published in the London Gazette, 22nd November 1843. The London Gazette website has a free, searchable database. The Railway Act of 1842 was the first piece of railway legislation, mainly to maintain railway safety. New lines had to be inspected by the Board of Trade, which could demand traffic returns and set up official inquiries into accidents. Another Railway Act (the Parliamentary Train Act) came into force in 1844, after Gladstone's Committee of Inquiry into railway policy. By this law, the government assumed the absolute right to take control of railways in times of national emergency and to fix fares and freight charges. See the Victorian Web about various Acts.
1844   Workman William Crawshaw killed whilst building Romticle Viaduct at Thurgoland, when a stone fell on him. His workmates engraved a commemorative stone which was built into the viaduct. See this photo of the stone.
1845   New Denby Church opened, started in 1842. Built in 1627, the previous Chapel of Ease had fallen into a perilous state which led to the re-build while retaining the tower from the earlier chapel. It had been condemned by the Bishop of Longley in 1839 as being in a ‘filthy and ruinous state’. John Ellis of High Flatts built the new church at a cost of £1,170.
see Heritage Inspired.
15th July. Railway line opened from Sheffield via Penistone to Dunford Bridge, by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway (SA & MR). This was only 20 years after the first public Stockton to Darlington Railway had opened, in 1825. The SA & MR company opened both the Woodhead Line and the Huddersfield Line, with Penistone as a major junction. The SA & MR later amalgamated into the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS & LR) company (see 1847).
  Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway (GC&SJ) founded this year. This ran from Gainsborough to the coast.
6th Oct. Train hits a cow, after departing Dunford Bridge station for Sheffield. It caused derailment of locomotive and carriages. The guard was injured but passengers suffered only minor bruising. The cow was cut almost in half.
22nd Dec. First Woodhead Tunnel officially opened (3 miles, 22 yards), having been started in 1839. 1,500 men worked on it but 32 died in its construction, with a further 28 dying of cholera. Ref 15. Note that Ref 18 gives different figures: 26 died and 140 injured. The Miller's Arms at Saltersbrook was used to pay the navvies. It was a rough pub which held bare-knuckle and cock fights. A bullock was roasted there when the first tunnel was bored through in 1845. The original cost was projected as £60,000 but in fact cost £200,000. It was quickly found to be a bottleneck and that a second tunnel would be needed, which was started in 1847. A bullock was roasted at the Millers' Arms, Saltersbrook, in celebration when the first Woodhead tunnel was bored through. Ref 7 p140. See 1852 and 1953. Joseph Locke was involved in the construction of the tunnels and Locke Park in Barnsley was named after him (opened 1862). See also the Woodhead website.
1846   Download a railway timetable (pdf) of this year for Penistone, from Stocksbridge Archives.
  Repeal of the Corn Laws, originally passed in 1815, which had led to artificially high prices of wheat as a protection of British producers against foreign competition. The law-makers had little concern for poor people at this time and this act had directly led to high bread prices and great starvation. A concerted campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws had been going since 1838.
  Sheffield and Lincolnshire Junction Railway (S&LJ) company founded.
  Denby Dale's Timber Viaduct started being built, to be completed for the grand opening of the line in 1850. This was after it had been blown down in 1847. It was to be 400 yards long and 112 feet high with 40 perpendicular supports. A 21-arch stone viaduct replaced it in 1880, started in 1877.
19th Aug. Third Denby Dale Pie baked, with an estimated 60,000 visitors. This was the 'Repeal Pie' celebrating the Repeal of the Corn Laws and marking the end of thirty one years of hardship. With the advent of peace between England and France in 1814, corn prices had reduced and Lord Liverpool's Tory government passed the 1815 Corn Law (55 Geo. 3 c. 26) to keep bread prices high. It was a protectionist move to keep out cheap grain imports but bread was a staple food and it became too expensive for ordinary people to buy, in already difficult times. There was rioting in London. The Anti-Corn Laws League helped overturn the law this year, ending the 'Hungry Forties.'

The DD Pie took 10½ hours to cook in a brick oven on the premises of Mr G Wilby. It was seven to eight feet in diameter (seven yards circumference) and 1ft 10inches deep. It contained 40 stones of flour, five sheep, one calf, 140lbs of beef, 12 dozen pigeons, five hares, 8 couples of rabbits, 10 brace of poultry, 6 couples of ducks, five brace of pheasants, 12 brace of grouse, 6 geese, 9 brace of partridges, four turkeys, six guinea fowls, 133 brace of small birds, 91lbs of beef suet, 32lbs of lard and 26lbs of butter. The pie was put on a dray and drawn through the village with 31 horses, headed by three bands. It was estimated that the crowd was not less than 60,000 people.

The procession went from Cuckstool to Norman Park. A temporary stage had been erected and the pie put upon it. Unfortunately, with a surging and boisterous crowd, the stage collapsed and Mr James Peace of Inkerman Hall, who had been designated to cut it, was trapped inside the crust. The pie was partly trampled on by the surging crowd. Accusations flew that agitators had been sent to cause trouble, either because of local politics or from the rival neighbourhood of Clayton West. Mr Pierce kept the special knife and fork, which was handed down to his grandson Mr JW Dewhurst.

Denby Dale Pie was not as large as a Cornwall Pie which was also baked to commemorate the Repeal of the Corn Laws. Theirs had been 21 ft and 6 inches diameter. It contained: 560lbs of flour, four sheep, one calf, 71lbs of beef suet, 21lbs of butter, 23lbs of lard, 21 couples of rabbits, 14 hares, 144 pigeons, six couples of ducks, six brace of partridges, 14 brace of grouse, two turkeys, four guinea fowls, 16 couples of poultry, 68 small birds and 41lbs of venison. The Cornwall Pie was drawn by 30 horses.

This wiki gives a good description of the Corn Law. See also the second Pie in 1815 and the fourth in 1887, which went off, followed by the Resurrection Pie the same year, all on this page. From Ref 20, some wiki and various almanacks.
1847   Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MSLR) formed from an amalgamation of Sheffield and Lincolnshire Junction Railway (S & LJ), Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway (SA & MR) and Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway (GG&SJR). To save costs, stations at Oxspring, Dog Lane, Dukinfield, Hazlehead and Thurgoland were all closed after only two years. See 1845 above. The MS&LR became the 'Great Central Railway' (GCR) in 1897.
27th Jan. Denby Dale's wooden viaduct blown down, having been started the year before. Ref 6, p9. It was finally completed ready for the line opening in 1850. It suffered from great vibrations when a train crossed it and passengers were nervous about its safety. It was said that fire buckets at intervals along the viaduct were only half-filled, as the vibration of passing trains tended to empty them anyway. See 1846 and 1880.
  Contract for a second Woodhead Railway Tunnel. It was soon realised that the single tunnel opened in 1845 was a bottleneck and a second tunnel was desirable. More attention was to be given to the welfare of navvies, including a school at Woodhead for their children. It was completed in 1852. See also 1849.
1848   Hoylandswaine School built on land donated this year, by GW Smith of Ecclefield.
  Cubley Brook Brewery founded as a beer brewery by Joseph Brooke and sited on each side of Mortimer Road at its lowest point, in Cubley Bottom. Mild and Bitter Beers were brewed to supply to local pubs. It is possible that beer/porter was brewed here earlier, possibly by one of the Marsh family. See my PPMV Co page and see 1923.
1849 May Cholera at Woodhead resulting in 28 dead workmen. (Ref 26). Work came to a complete stop. Four days after the onset of the disease, only 100 out of 750 workmen remained on-site. Many of them fled in panic after seeing the arrival of a supply of extra coffins. The dead were buried in unmarked graves at a small chapel in Crowden and a communal plot in Tintwistle churchyard.
27th July Penistone Poor Law Union formed, comprising eight parishes or townships formerly in the Wortley Union, and seven others not previously part of any union: Cawthorne (two guardians), West Clayton, Upper Denby, Gunthwaite, High Hoyland, Hoyland Swaine, Hunshelf, Ingbirchworth, Kexborough, Langsett, Oxspring, Penistone, Silkstone, Thurgoland and Thurlstone. The first meeting was held 30th October at the Rose and Crown, Penistone. The new union operated without a workhouse until 1859. Penistone Workhouse. See also 1841 and its 1869 successor body, Penistone Local Board.
  Florins coined for the first time in the UK.
  The spectacular, 29-arch Penistone Railway Viaduct built by Messrs Ingham and Bower. With a gentle curve, it is 900 feet long and 80 feet high. The stone was quarried from Walk Mill bank, Oxspring, and conveyed by a tramway specially erected by the side of the River Don. Walk Mill later housed Winterbottom's Wire Mill. See 1850 below, when the line opened.
  MS & LR, Huddersfield and Manchester branches opened. Huddersfield Railway Station (built 1846 - 1850) is a Grade 1 listed building. It was built by Joseph Kaye and designed by James Pigott Pritchett ('Pritchett of York'). Its imposing facade dominates George Square, which is the centrepiece of the Victorian 'new town'. The George Hotel (1850 to 2012) in the square was the birthplace of Rugby League in 1895.
1850   The first Cawthorne Show. It was abandoned in 1952 when opencast coal working had started on the show site. Presumably the last Cawthorne Show would have been 1951. Ref 6.
Sunday
30th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'A heavily loaded train from Holmfirth to Penistone ground to a halt in Stockmoor tunnel and the carriages had to be split into two sections, leaving the rear section stranded for a while in the tunnel until the engine returned to retrieve them.'
1st July First trains to run on the MS & LR, Penistone to Huddersfield Railway Line, also the branch line from Brockholes to Holmfirth. Ref 6. Started in 1846, Denby Dale's wooden viaduct was also opened on this day but many passengers were nervous about crossing it. It was 400 yards long and 112 feet high with 40 perpendicular supports. Half-filled water buckets were maintained all the way across in case of fire. Full buckets would become half-filled anyway with the great vibration of passing trains. As regards the timetable, complaints were made to the railway company that the Holmfirth Railway Station clock was fifteen minutes ahead of the Parish Church clock, which used 'local time' and people were missing their trains. As a result of the spread of railways and its standardised 'Railway Time' and 'Local Time' was soon abandoned in its favour throughout the land. See also 1849 above.
1851   Census lists 118 Denby villagers as being employed in the textile industry.
  Maps show Hawley's Sawmill site as having a shop, house and saw pit. This was on the former, mediaeval Penistone Green. The business had started in the 1820s. See S Yorks Timescapes.
6th Sept Huddersfield & Holmfirth Examiner - Founding of the regional newspaper on a weekly basis. The 'Holmfirth' was dropped from the title only two years later. From 28th January 1971, it became a daily, to forestall a rival paper from dominating Huddersfield's readership. The paper lays claim to having the first woman journalist in regional British journalism in 1888. The Examiner joined the Trinity Mirror Group (which publishes the Daily Mirror) in 1999. The paper conrtinues to the present day as the Huddersfield Examiner.
15th Sept MS & LR, Sheffield Victoria Railway Station opened. Woodhead Line Links:
See the Victorian Web for an overview of GB railways, with illustrations of carriages and more. John Spiller has railway drawings and photographs and Disused Railway Stations has pictures and maps. The National Railway Museum at York has a list of archives. Wikipedia has a page on the MS&LR.
  The year of the Great Exhibition. A third-class return train fare from Leeds to London was half a crown (2s 6d).
1852 Feb. Second Woodhead Tunnel completed for the 'Up' line, to accommodate the increasing railway traffic, having started in 1847. The belching chimneys of expanding Lancashire factories needed more coal than their county could supply, whilst Yorkshire could and did supply the necessary coal from Wath, near Barnsley, via the Woodhead Line. Joseph Locke was involved in the construction of the tunnels and Locke Park in Barnsley was named after him (opened 1862). See also 1849 (cholera) 1953 and Ref 16.
5th Feb. Holmfirth Flood. A fifteen-foot wall of water rushed down the valley into Holmfirth when the embankment of Bilberry Reservoir collapsed. Men, women and children were washed away along with a four-storey mill and houses. 78 people lost their lives and property worth £300,000 destroyed. The reservoir had been built in 1840 with a surface area of about 20 acres and depth of 105 feet, to supply water for the extensive woollen industry in the locality. The public raised a noble £70,000 towards a relief fund for survivors, of which Huddersfield contributed £14,000. An excursion train from Manchester to Holmfirth on the recently-opened railway brought 300 unwelcome spectators to take in the scene of the flooding in a spirit of morbid curiosity.
  South Yorkshire Railway & River Dun Navigation extended its Worsborough Colliery branch railway through to Moor End pit at Silkstone. The company was taken over in 1874 by the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway, which started connecting it to the company's main line at West Silkstone Junction. See the 'Forgotten Relics' site and 1880.
  Big railway trip to Penistone. A cheap Sunday evening special departed from Holmfirth railway station, carrying 3,000 passengers to Penistone. This caused the Penistone pubs to run dry. Railways were having a boom time.
  Four shops built on the East side of Market Street by Mr JF Moorhouse for Mrs Calvert who lived in the first shop (rhs). From the picture in this reference, the row starts with the current Yorkshire Building Society and ends with GT News which took over two shops (Raymond Smith's radio shop and another Smith's sweet shop). The Sportsman's Arms stood just up the road from here, now a dental surgery. (Ref 17 p15). A modern picture of the four shops.
13th Dec Raid on a house in Thurgoland. The house of Mr John Couldwell of Cheesebottom, Thurgoland, was attacked by six ruffians at 7pm. A servant girl raised the alarm and the intruders ran off. Two of them were apprehended the same night.
1853   Queen Victoria signs an order making Denby into a parish separate from Penistone. This would also include Gunthwaite, Ingbirchworth, High Flatts and Birds Edge.
25th Aug Two men buried alive at Hartcliffe Stone Quarry. Ref 26.
21st Sept. First Penistone Show held. (Ref 6). The Show was at first held on fields behind the Town Hall (not yet built), on the Thursday Market Day. In 1883 it moved to Brickfield, Unwin Street and changed to Saturday but rain and the change of venue killed off the Show until its return in 1889, back to Thursday and held in Bailey's Park, an area which is now the Park Avenue estate. It returned in 1895 on land behind the Town Hall, where it stayed until 1948. The following year it moved again to land near Water Hall, to eventually move to the current Showground. Ref 17 p80.
The Stock Catalogue dated 20th August 1863 referred to that year's event as: The 'Tenth Annual Exhibition' of Penistone Agricultural, Horticultural and Floral Society, 'Established in 1853' (see 1863 below). Some Penistone Almanacks gave the year as 1854. The 1991 Penistone Guide (Ref 16) says that the 'Show' had been given its name by local historian John Ness Dransfield.
1854   Penistone Show - Some sources give this as the first year of the Show. See 1853 above. Also to be found in 'Remarkable Occurrences and Interesting Dates' J Wood 1890, of which notes were passed on by Cllr Brenda Hinchliffe.
12th Aug. Thurlstone Brass Band established as an entirely brass band. Previous to this, it had been mostly a string band. It was in existence in 1830 in its earlier form. Ref 6 and Ref 7
1855 13th Apr William Fenton Esq., of Underbank, 'Barbarously murdered by robbers in Ageciras, Spain', Aged 35. William was the only son of Samuel and Jessey Fenton and was interred in Gibraltar. This is from a tablet in Penistone Church, placed there 'by his four sisters, the youngest of whom was with him at the time of his cruel death'.
18th July Rev'd Samuel Sunderland, vicar of Penistone Parish, 'accidentally killed', aged 48. According to the plaque in Penistone Church, his ministerial life lasted nearly 26 years and he was much appreciated by the parishioners. His manner of passing is not stated. Ref 30 notes say that he was killed at Rowsley.
  Canon W S Turnbull, begins his long reign as vicar of Penistone Church this year until his death in 1913. The church lychgate was built in 1959 as a memorial to this well-regarded vicar. See the Church History page.
  Thurlstone Handbell Ringers formed this year. The Minute Book of the old School Board contains a clause that they should always be allowed the use of the Thurlstone School room for rehearsals. The Handbell Ringers changed their name around 1970 to Thurlstone Bell Orchestra for reasons unknown. Their bells are still in storage at the school, in perpetuity.
1856 8th Feb Oxspring New Corn Mill, belonging to Mr Henry Rolling, burnt out. It had opened in 1828 with the holding of a ball. (Ref 7). The 1882 Penistone Almanack gives the year as 1855.
Thurs
14th Feb.
A heartwarming story in the Manchester Guardian (Tues 19th February): 'Love Laughs at the Locksmith's':
Thursday last being the day appointed for a wedding at Penistone between a young man and servant girl (banns having been published), the bridegroom went to the house where the bride was still in service, a few miles from Penistone, to conduct her to church, where the bridal party was assembling. To his great astonishment he found her master, opposed to the marriage, had actually locked up the girl, to prevent her nuptials; and the bridegroom, finding all remonstrance vain, was obliged to return to the church alone, and announce the mortifying tidings to clergyman and guests. However, "Love laughs at the locksmiths;" and the damsel, having served her master faithfully for six years, resented her imprisonment so strongly as to make her escape through a window, during the same night, and Friday morning saw the "happy couple" duly united in the bonds of matrimony. (Presumably this was an era of long sentences, one way or another. - JB)
Sunday
28th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'On the Sunday, overcrowding in the booking hall at Penistone Station due to the Feast led to a Henry Mattrick of Hatfield assaulting Mr. Routh, the station master. Mattrick was fined £1 17s.'
  Hartcliff Tower (folly) and nearby Hartcliff Summer House built by Henry Richardson Esq., a linen merchant who became the first Mayor of Barnsley. Both buildings were prominent landmarks for miles around. The Summer House was blown down by high winds in 1964, with the tower remaining standing. Over time, the Tower had become unsafe with steps missing. Local rumour was that the tower had some sort of wartime function, such as a lookout or possible anti-aircraft gun. There were metal mounting points of some sort at the top. It was renovated in recent times by landowner Mr Pears of Bella Vista Farm, Hartcliff Road. Ref 17 p81.
  School Terrace built, top of Church Street. Stone cobbles were discovered from a medieval church ale-house on the same site. Ref 10.
Dec. Burial Ground at Penistone Church closed by order of the Council. Ref 7
1857 12th Jan. Penistone and Barnsley Railway. A single line was opened to run from Penistone to Summer Lane, Barnsley. Ref 18 and see 1845.
Sunday
28th June
Carlecotes Church opened. Ref 5 and 1882 Penistone Almanack.
Also
28th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
  • The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway Company laid on special cheap excursion trains from Huddersfield. They proved so popular that the first two trains had no room for any more passengers by the time they reached Stocksmoor. The Chronicle reported that around 20 young men managed to climb onto the roofs of the full carriages, "preferring to risk their lives in the tunnels, rather than be disappointed of visiting the feast." After some passengers had been waiting over four hours for a train, "a general mutiny ensued" with everyone demanding refunds on their tickets.
  • Thomas Turner of Honley was returning from the Feast by train when he fell asleep in the carriage. John Watson of Moldgreen took the opportunity to relieve Turner of his pocket watch. A witness has seen the theft and Police Sergeant Sedgwick arrested Watson and retrieved the watch.
July Big Trip to Liverpool. A railway train of thirty four-wheeled carriages took passengers on a return trip to Liverpool from Thongs Bridge station on the Holmfirth Line.
  The George public house opens in Upper Denby. As of 2016, this pub is still going strong and the only pub left in Denby.
  Hepworth Iron Co. begins manufacturing clay products around this time at Crow Edge. Originally set up to mine iron ore, the company soon abandoned the low-quality ore in favour of high-quality, heavy clay deposits associated with it. It produced a range of clay products, including bricks.
1858   Oxspring Railway Viaduct built, connecting Penistone with Barnsley.
May New local newspaper - The Penistone Journal, Commercial Advertiser and Monthly Miscellany. Published on eight pages by and printed for Thomas Dale of Pitt Street, Barnsley by George Moxon at 22 Market Hill, Barnsley. John Ness Dransfield supposed in Ref 7 that it never continued beyond its first issue, of which he had a copy. JND attempted to publish his own weekly 'Penistone Herald' newspaper in 1891 but 'Did not issue many of them', citing 'various causes' preventing him from proceeding further.
Sunday
28th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
  • John Gaunt of Barnsley was late returning from the Feast to Penistone Station. Spotting that the train was about to set off, he ran across a field to intercept it some 200 yards from the station. Despite the train moving at around 6mph, he was able to clamber into a carriage. He was fined 2s. 6d. plus costs.
  • Isaac Carr was also charged with attempting to board a moving train. Having returned from the Feast "The worse for liquor", he ran alongside the train but took a tumble and was lucky not to have been run over. On being helped back to the station, he was "most abusive". Carr was fined £1 plus costs.
  The Barnsley Chronicle was founded this year. Other papers have come and gone, but the Chronicle has stood the test of time as a weekly newspaper. It has a Penistone edition and is published on Thursdays, for Friday sales.
  Local Gas Supply. An Act of Parliament had allowed for the supply of gas to Penistone, Thurlstone and Oxspring this year. Penistone Gas Company opened their gasworks on Talbot Road. This year date appeared in various Penistone Almanacks (Eg. 1878, 1882 and 1900) but F Wilson gives the date as 1869, which must have referred to the first time that gas street lighting came into use on Penistone's streets, eleven years later on 24th December 1869. (Ref 8). Also Ref 1 p165 and Ref 30.
18th Nov Auction of Bullhouse Mill. An auction of 'Mills and Lands in the Parish of Penistone' by Mr Lancaster, at the Rose and Crown in Penistone. For sale were The Bullhouse Water Corn Mill, fulling and scribbling mill, farmhouse, closes and mills, in eleven lots. According to Ref. UDM (Page 18), the property was not sold. Major elements shown here:
  • Lot 1. - Bullhouse Water Corn Mill with two powerful water wheels and machinery also the mill dam and goit from the River Don, Far Second Boyd, Near Second Boyd, Holme, Lower Holme (etc.); 24 A, 2R, 20 P.
  • Lot 2. - The Bullhouse Fulling and Scribbling Mill with water wheel, Steam Engine, and machinery, also the mill dam and goit from the River Don, and the House near this dam, Laith Croft, East side of Turton Field and Part of Lee Lane adjoining (etc.); 7 A, 1R, 1P.
  • Lot 3. - Holme, Island in the River Don, Holme over the River, Half River adjoining. 4A, 2,R 32P. With Right of Way 20 feet wide from the Turnpike Road at the North-East corner of Lot 4 to the North-West corner of Lot 3. ;
  • Lot 4. - Holme Head and Bridge Close, Half River adjoining. 2A, 2R, 2P. Sold subject to Right of Way in Lot 3;
  • Lot 5. - West side of Turton Field and Part of Lee Lane adjoining. 3A, 3R, 5P;
  • Lot 6. - Acre, Half River adjoining. 2A, 2R, 35P. Sold subject to Right of Way 20 feet wide over the East end of it to Lot 7.;
  • Lot 7. - Part Lee Field Ing. 3A, 0R, 30P. With Right of Way last mentioned over Lot 6.
  • Lot 8. - Part of Lee Field Ing and part of Lee Lane adjoining. 4A, 3R, 37P;
  • Lot 9. - Part of High Field or Lee Field and part of Lee Lane adjoining, Rein adjoining, Half the River adjoining. 6A, 1R, 11P;
  • Lot 10. - Ox Close and Part of Lee Lane adjoining, Half the River adjoining. 5A, 0R, 35P;
  • Lot 11. - Green Top or Nook. 2A, 2R, 2P.
1859   Penistone Poor Law Workhouse started being built at Netherfield, ten years after the Penistone Poor Law Union had been formed in 1849 and opened 25th July 1861. The site is now occupied by the latest incarnation of Penistone Grammar School. See Ref 27 and Penistone Workhouse.
1860 January Penistone Choral Society formed. Date inferred from a line in Ref 17 p200, which refers to an 1870 celebratory meal in the new Rose and Crown, to mark the Society's tenth anniversary.
  Until this year, Penistone church bells were rung to this schedule:
Weekdays - 5am (summer) - 6am (winter), Noon and 8pm, except Saturday nights. On Sundays - 7am, 8am and 1pm.
  Spring Vale Flax Mill - Built by G and W Waites. From Ref 30.
  The Plough and Harrow at Fiddler's Green closed around this time. It was kept by William Bagshaw (1822 directory) and later by J Clarke. See the Old Inns page.
  The David Brown company was founded in 1860 as a general manufacturing company in the Huddersfield area. It focussed on gear-cutting from 1873. The original Mr David Brown, Patternmaker and gear cutter, passed away in 1901 at the age of 59. The company continued under the name of David Brown and Sons. It did not come to Penistone until it purchased the old Cammel-Laird site in 1934. See the David Brown history page. Also see Grace's Guide: David Brown and Sons and Wikipedia.
  Spring Vale's 'Tin Chapel' built. Replaced in 1927.
1861   Around this time, Spring Vale Box Mill was built by Messrs G&W Waites and used as a Flax Mill until it closed in 1869. Some years later it became a Mineral Water Box Factory and employed many hands. It was demolished in 1925. Ref 26.
  Population of Thurlstone: 2,251. Ref 16.
  St John the Evangelist Church, Hoylandswaine. Application made to Ripon Diocesan Church Building Society to build a church at Hoylandswaine. There had been a Quaker burial ground on the site in 1724. William Wordsworth the Younger, a wealthy landowner from Water Hall Farm in Penistone, was buried in there. The site for the church, churchyard and parsonage (about two acres in all) was given by Francis Thomas Vernon Wentworth of Wentworth Castle. The church and parsonage were mostly paid for by the Stanhope family of Cannon Hall and Banks Hall, both in Cawthorne. These details come from this document, St John's (small pdf). See also 1868. 1869.
  Silkstone Band was formed this year, now known as The Old Silkstone Band. It continues to perform in the area and beyond and especially at the annual 'Silkstone Sing' in July.
25th July Penistone Union Workhouse opened, having been started in 1849. The architects were Henry F Lockwood and William Mawson, who also designed workhouses at Barnsley, Bradford, Dewsbury and North Brierley. Ref 27. Penistone Urban District Council also used it for meetings. Extensions were added in 1895 (infirmary) and around 1917 (isolation hospital and mortuary extensions). Two buildings were added around the turn of the 19th century, which were probably used as Day Rooms. Much of the garden was used to grow food for the workhouse. At the end of the 19th century, the grounds were extended to include room for stone-breaking by the male inmates. It clearly was not called a 'workhouse' without good reason. In 1930, it was taken over by the West Riding County Council (WRCC) and continued as a 'Public Assistance Institution'. The buildings became an Aged Resident's Home in 1948, when infirmary patients were transferred to NHS hospitals. With Local Governement Reorganisation in 1974, the buildings were taken over by Barnsley MB Council's education department. The workhouse buildings were then taken over as the PGS Sixth Form College, demolished 2013 to make way for new PGS buildings on the same site. See 1930 and 1948. Penistone Workhouse.
  The White Bear opened. Its entrance was in the ginnel next to Clark's Chemist and Benjamin White was the landlord. It had a fair run until 1925, when it became the Penistone British Legion Club, before that moved to its current location. Ref 6 and see the Old Inns page.
1862 February Runaway horse. A horse and gig belonging to Mr Samuel Fox of Stocksbridge steel works was parked outside the Old Crown, Penistone, when the horse took fright. The boy who was watching over the horse lost control and It took off down the hill at great speed until it crashed into a wall in Oxspring. The valuable gig was smashed to pieces. (The landlord of the Old Crown in 1864 was William Bedford). Ref 21 p136. See also the Old Inns page.
13th Mar Barnsley British Co-operative Society opens its first store at 16 Market Street, Barnsley. The BBCS was formed in Aug. 1861 by nine men: William Morley, George Adcroft, John Corless, William Hildred, James Kaye, Benjamin Pinder, James Wray, Robert Steel, and William Tinker. The business moved into a larger store at the junction of Wellington Street and New Street, Barnsley, in the same year.
9th Jun Penistone Steel Works. Foundation stone laid on Whit Monday.
10th Jun 'People's Park' opened in Barnsley, to be renamed 'Locke Park' in 1877. Joseph Locke's widow, Phoebe, had gifted High Stile Field (17 acres of land) to the town on 24 April 1861 for a park in memory of her husband. Joseph Locke was involved in the construction of the Woodhead railway tunnels. When Phoebe Locke died in 1866, an Observation Tower was erected in a high position in the park in her memory and opened on 20th October 1877, giving visitors 360 degree panoramic views from two platforms. The park’s bandstand was added in 1908, manufactured by the Loan Foundry Company, Kirkintiloch. See Locke Park and Friends of Locke Park.
  Queens Hotel, Spring Vale, built by Joseph Clarke. This is on the corner with the lane to the Cricket Club. It was converted into a dwelling in 1974 but is now a children's centre. 1878 Almanack. See Old Inns.
  Ingbirchworth Reservoir constructed between 1862 and 1868. Ref 29.
  Corunna Terrace built in Penistone in 1862 by John Halstead.  It was built on the site of the 'poor houses' which go back to the 1500s. The lane outside Corunna Terrace was called 'Poor House Lane'. It ended at Castle lane. Green Road was not there then (from Michael Horn of Penistone Archive Group on Facebook). Dr Richard Thorne's 1879 Report on sanitary conditions in Penistone mentions Corunna Terrace for its particularly poor sanitation. On Page 4: 'Cesspool drainage in this locality is still a source of grave nuisance, and soakage of sewage into the cellars was still compalined of.' See also 'Picture Sheffield' for a small picture of Corruna Terrace in 1910.
  The Queen Hotel was built by Joseph Clarke in Spring Vale this year.
October Penistone Church re-opened after renovations, costing £1,300. Canon Turnbull removed the old high-sided pews (mostly named, numbered and appropriated). They were replaced with open, unappropriated seats. Removal of 'Gallery with organ loft and singing seat by which the fine old arch of the tower and west window were entirely concealed.' Partly Ref 17 p5. See the Church History page.
1863   'Old Silkstone Brass Band' founded. Still in operation in 2013. (As recorded in an EPIP document)
  James Durrans' blacking works opened in the The Phoenix Works, Thurlstone. Mr James B Durrans proved to be a leading citizen of the era and became Master of the Penistone Hunt. See also 2013.
1st May First 'blow' at Yorkshire Steel and Iron Works, Penistone, its foundation stone having been laid the year before. The works was started in Penistone by Benson, Adamson and Garnet but was then sold to Charles Cammell & Co., (later to become Cammell Laird's) in 1864. Its main product was railway lines. See Ref 16. See 1930, when Cammel Laird closed.
30th May First meeting of Denby Local Board, in the schoolroom. Herbert Camm-Dickenson (elected chairman), John Wood, Edward Shaw, William Priest, Joseph Haigh, James Peace, Edward Hirst and Thomas Moxon signed the 'Declaration of Qualification' required by the Local Government Act, 1858.
20th Aug The 'Tenth Annual Exhibition' ... of Penistone Agricultural, Horticultural and Floral Society, 'Established in 1853'. The list of Patrons: The Right Honorable The Earl of Scarborough, The Right Honorable The Lord Wharncliffe, The Right Honorable James Stuart Wortley, Sir Lionel M S Pilkington, Bart., F W T V Wentworth, Esq., J S Stanhope, Esq., MP, R M Milnes, Esq., MP, W B Beaumont, Esq., MP, John Chapman, Esq., MP, W S Stanhope, Esq., C D Charlesworth, Esq., G W B Bosville, Esq., Samuel Coward, Esq., Penistone, W F Dixon, Esq., Page Hall, Wilson Overend, Esq., Sheffield, R G Ramsden, Esq., London, W P Milner, Esq., Dykes Hall, W Smith, Esq., Barnes Hall, R J Bentley, Esq., Rotherham, Bentley Shaw, Esq., Lockwood, R C Clarke, Esq., Noblethorpe Hall, Thomas Vickers, Esq., Manchester.
President: John Spencer Stanhope, Esq., Cannon Hall, Vice Presidents: John Dransfield, Esq., Penistone and Thomas Tomasson, Esq., Thurlstone. Treasurer: Mr John Greaves, Penistone. Secretary: Mr John Haigh, Penistone. Also a committee of 24 men, which included John Ness Dransfield.
Details from the 1863 Stock Catalogue, viewable in Penistone Library.
1864   The Railway Tavern, No1 Stottercliffe Road, closed. Kept successively by: Benjamin Armitage, C. Shore and Joe Wainwright. Ref 5.
11th March The Great Sheffield Flood. Just before midnight on Friday 11th March, millions of gallons of water surged along the River Don in Loxley Valley towards Sheffield. The newly-built Dale Dyke reservoir near Bradfield had become breached during a storm, with a crack having appeared on the dam wall some time earlier in the day. Reservoir water levels were reduced as a precaution but did not prevent the breach. 415 houses were destroyed and most of the Don bridges upstream of Lady's Bridge were destroyed or damaged. 4,000 homes were flooded with a reported death toll of 240. The reservoir was rebuilt in 1875 and brought into use in 1887, with a 446 million gallon capacity. Former Dunford Parish Councillor Mick Drewry wrote 'Inundation', about the flood, book available from Amazon, eBay or by calling 01226 76 2477. See 'Bradfield and the Dale Dyke Disaster' (another source gave the estimate of destroyed houses as 800).
  Charles Cammell & Co., (later to become Cammell Laird's) bought the Yorkshire Iron & Steel Works at Penistone, area 25 acres, 1 rood, 25 perches. Closed 1930.
Sunday
26th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'The Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway Company laid on a cheap train which departed Sheffield at 1pm and returned at 8:30pm. Return tickets were priced at 2/- for first class or 1/- for standard class.'
  Denby 'First School' (Church of England) built. It was originally called Denby National School. An earlier school at Lower Denby coexisted for a while before being converted into a house. That school was funded by Francis Burdett of nearby Denby Hall.
  Plans for two reservoirs in the township of Thurlstone, parish of Penistone, announced in the London Gazette, published 15th November 1864. They were both to be situated on a stream known as Windleden Clough Beck. The London Gazette website has a free, searchable database.
1866   The Black Swan Inn kept by Nanny Green (Ann Green) closed when the adjacent Bridge Inn opened, kept by Mr Amos Green (with Ann Green). The Bridge Inn (or Hotel) was originally described as the 'New Black Swan' when the licence was applied for in 1865, having been built next door to the old Black Swan. Ann Green was listed in 1822 as victualler. Ref 5 and Ref 21. See the Old Inns page.
  The Junction public house opens, now called the Dunkirk. This is between Denby and Denby Dale.
October Accident at Penistone Railway Station. Foreman Porter Edward Laycock was standing too close to the edge of the platform when a crank on the Huddersfield train caught him. He was pulled between the plates and the platform and his left arm was mutilated by the wheels in a shocking manner. Dr Ward of Penistone arrived and amputated the limb. Hopes of his recovery were dashed and he died within three days. At 37, he left a wife and family. An inquest at the Bridge Hotel pronounced him 'Accidentally killed'. Penistone Station at this time was located in the tall building to the right of the current St Mary's Street roundabout, the current station having opened in 1874. Ref 21 p25.
5th Nov. Pigeon Shooting Leger, at 'the Bridge-End Hotel'. Some 400 - 500 'patrons of the gun' met to enjoy their sport. Eight entries shot for a new gun valued at £5. The conditions were: five birds each, 1½ oz of shot, 21 yards rise and 60 boundary. The shooters and results were:
William Mitchell
, Thurlstone killed five birds, J Marsh, Thurlstone killed four, J Swift, Penistone killed three, G Mitchell, Thurlstone killed three, Benjamin Strutt, Dodworth, killed three, C Gill, Cawthorne, killed three, John Hinchcliffe, Thurlstone, killed three and G Wood, Thurlstone, killed two birds. See the Old Inns page.
1867   Penistone Cricket Club. Founded this year and celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2017. Penistone CC.
24th June Foundation stone of the Providence Chapel, Thurlstone, laid by Mr E Fawcett. Ref 16. The sign outside the chapel (2016) has a much longer title: 'Thurlstone Providence Particular Baptist Chapel'. The Particular Baptists operate a 'Restricted communion', offered only to those who had been baptised by immersion as believers. As a Calvinist principle, 'Particular' referred to the belief in 'Particular redemption', that Christ died for the salvation of a definite or limited number of believers.
A good picture of the chapel and a description of the faith can be found on Woodtyke's Flikr page. The text is accredited to Mr Frank A Wilson, of the 'Around Town' website (Woodtyke's supplied link was broken): 'The Baptists first met in a workshop behind some cottages at the ‘Top o’ the Town’ in 1828 moving to the present chapel nearby in 1867. The Providence Particular Baptists, who once baptised new members in the River Don, still advertise outside the chapel that they have Sunday Services – God Willing.'
  Penistone and Thurlstone Building Society formed. From the 1969 booklet for Penistone Urban District Council centenary, the building society was 'recently' taken over by Leek and Westbourne Building Society. According to 'Building Society' Leek and Westbourne Building Society and Oldbury Britannia Building Society merged together in 1975 to form the Britannia Building Society. From the same website, the Britannia Building Society was acquired (officially called 'merged') in 2009 by the latterly disasterous Co-operative Bank, a bank which started its closing branches in 2013. The PUDC centenary booklet (1869 to 1969) can be found in the Dransfield Cabinet, Penistone Library.
  Whitsuntide Walks in our area started from this time. They were joint parades of the various denominations in the area and always well supported. People would wear their newest or 'Sunday best' clothes. Children often had new clothes bought for the Parade. The Whitsun Walks petered out in the 1950s and finally came to an end in 1987 when a new Bank Holiday replaced the traditional Whitsuntide. They were replaced by a 'Pentecost Praise' service in Penistone Church. Ref 1 p 97 and Ref 17 p90.
16th Aug. Innkeeper of The Fleece Inn (24, Market Street, Penistone) Adam Aspinall adjudged bankrupt. William Spooner Mitchell took over. But see 1872-3. The location was where Images and the Cherry tree Chinese take-away is now. Ref 21. See the Old Inns page.
13th Nov. Foundation stone of Hoylandswaine Church laid by the Bishop of Ripon. The church is dedicated to Saint John the Evangelist. From Heritage Inspired (History of the Church - pdf) we discover that The Society of Friends had a graveyard here in 1724 and that William Wordsworth the Younger, a wealthy landowner from Water Hall Farm in Penistone, was buried in this graveyard. From Hoylandswaine History: The land was donated by Mr Walter Thomas William Spencer Stanhope of Cannon Hall, and his wife, Elizabeth Julia Stanhope. The Church was consecrated on the 30th July 1869 by Robert Bickersteth, the Bishop of Ripon. The Reverend W.C. Barwis was instituted as the first incumbent. See also 1869.
1868 14th Feb. Ingbirchworth Reservoir and Waterworks opened to supply Barnsley. In 1862, Mr Thomas Hawkesley, described as 'the greatest water engineer who ever lived' (Mr Dransfield's cuttings) had been called in and the Water Board Act of that year was obtained. This authorised the construction if the reservoir, to supply 1,080,000 gallons of water per day to the Barnsley area and to Ingbirchworth, Gunthwaite, Hoylandswaine, Silkstone and Dodworth, along with a few hamlets near to Barnsley. The Barnsley population in 1862 was about 25,000. Ingbirchworth water treatment plant was also renovated in the 1970s. See 1893.
20th Mar Mr and Mrs William Holmes - Presented with a Tea and Coffee Service upon leaving the old Rose and Crown Hotel. A 'Tea Service' would typically comprise a set of cups and saucers (perhaps three to five of each), a milk jug, sugar bowl and teapot. Possibly also the teaspoons, a tray and more. We might expect a coffee jug to be included in a 'Tea and Coffee Service.' Ref 5.
30th July St John the Evangelist Church, Hoylandswaine consecrated by the Bishop of Ripon, Robert Bickersteth. It was built to accommodate 250 worshippers. These details come from this document, St John's (small pdf).
7th Oct Site purchased for Penistone Police Station, for £800. Ref 26.
24th Nov. Polling Day, for the Southern Division of the West Riding of the County of York. Candidates: Lord Viscount Milton - 8111 Votes, Henry F Beaumont - 1943 Votes, Walter S Stanhope - 1935 Votes, Lewis R Starkey - 1621 Votes.
  Take a look at the 'National Gazeteer: A Topographical Dictionary of the British Islands' of this year, from Archive.org. The entry for Penistone resides in Volume 3, p. 182. The pdf is a very large download of more than 100Mb, which might crash your browser.
  Rockwood Harriers established this year by Walter Norton of Denby Dale. They are best known for their Boxing Day meet which continues to this day. They assemble 11am at The George Inn, Upper Denby, to set off at noon in their 'hunting green' outfits. This is a very old local tradition, well-supported by on-lookers. Rockwood Harriers.
  Thurlstone Local Board formed. This was the fore-runner to Thurlstone Urban District Council which was formed towards the end of this century (date not established) 'pursuant to the Local Government Act 1894'.
1869   New Rose and Crown built as a replacement for the original Rose and Crown Inn which occupied a position which would have blocked the current Shrewsbury Road. The new building was built by Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury. With the old R&C demolished, a new road was built called Shrewsbury Road. Ref 21 p199. See the Old Inns page and the Rose and Crown page for more details.
29th July Hoylandswaine Church consecrated, following an application to Ripon Diocesian Church Building Society in 1861. The church was dedicated to St John the Evangelist and built at a cost of £3,000, mostly from the Stanhope family of Cannon Hall. The new parish of Hoylandswaine was created on 13th November 1869 by the the Queen in Council. The church was constructed to accommodate 250 worshippers. At that time, the population of Hoylandswaine was 960 of which 730 lived more than two miles away from existing churches at Silkstone and Cawthorne. They were mainly weavers, coal-miners, nail makers, farmers and agricultural labourers. Until the church was built, services had been held in the school (Ref 16) and often had congregations of around 130 people. About two acres of land for the church, churchyard and parsonage was donated by Francis Thomas Vernon Wentworth. The Reverend WC Barwis was instituted as the first incumbent. From Ref 5 and a booklet 'The Parish Church of St John the Evangelist' - 'A Brief History of the Years 1869 to 1994' in the local history section of Penistone Library. See also Heritage Inspired (History of the Church - pdf) and 1867 above.
  Adoption by the township of Penistone of the Local Government Act 1858 approved and signed by HA Bruce of the Home Office, Whitehall, London. Recorded in the London Gazette of 8th July 1869. It referred to Penistone township having a population of less than 3,000 by the census of 1861. The Local Board was required to have nine members. The London Gazette website has a free, searchable database. See next item.
  Spring Vale Flax Mill - Closed this year. From Ref 30.
21st Aug. Penistone Local Board founded. They held their ordinary meetings at 7pm on the second Monday of each month in the National School-room, Church Street. The first appointed members were: Thomas Hawley, Joseph Hawley, John Rayner, Joseph Brook, Thomas Marsden, John Ward, WS Turnbull, Thomas Wood and Luke P White. Chairman was Rev WS Turnbull. This Board followed on from the Penistone Poor Law Union (see 1849) and was fore-runner to Penistone Urban and Rural District Councils (formed 1894 and abolished 1974), which, in turn, were fore-runners to Penistone Town Council.
13th Nov. The new Parish of Hoylandswaine was created by the the Queen in Council. It's church had been consecrated the year before.
24th Dec. Gas lights illuminate Penistone streets for the first time, ready for Christmas. These early ones would have needed a lamp-lighter to come around twice a day with his ladder. The later ones would have a pilot light which was continuously lit and operated by an eight-day clockwork mechanism, to be wound up by someone every week. The last remaining one was most likely that under Green Road railway bridge. It was certainly still lit in the 1960s. Electric street lighting did not come to Penistone until the early 1930s and much later in the outlying areas.
Penistone
1870s
  During this decade, an engine from James Butterworth was fitted to Walk Mill, Oxspring, which was a 'Fulling Mill' where woollen cloth was washed. Winterbottom took it over in 1888 as a wire mill. See Gracesguide - Butterworth (which erroneously says that it was delivered to Winterbottom's). And see Winterbottom page. Weirfield house built around the middle of this decade, by Dr. Alfred Marchment Watson of Jamaica. He was a physician and surgeon and married to Dr. Fanny E Watson (1881 Census). See Ref 28 and PGS Archive.
1870 5th Jan. Gas Explosion at the (new) Rose and Crown. This was a new building only the year before. A servant girl carrying a lit candle went into the commercial room in the morning, trying to find a dog, when the explosion took out a large window which landed in the street. The girl's hair was burnt off and a door and some furniture badly damaged. The innkeeper Joseph Byrom had accidentally left a gas tap on the night before and closed the door. Ref 21 p200.
24th Feb. The Rock Inn, Rockside, Thurlstone. Sold by auction at the new Rose and Crown, Penistone. Ref 17 p200.
17th Apr Forty acres of Wharncliffe Wood destroyed by fire. Ref 26.
May Abolition of Tolls on Huddersfield Road. Houses and toll-houses on the Huddersfield to Penistone turnpike road were put up for sale on the expiry of the Turnpike Trust for that road, in June. It was expected that the bar-house at Penistone Bridge and at High Flatts would be removed. Ref 21 p137.
12th May The Burial Board of the Ecclesiastic Parish of Penistone formed, according to Penistone Almanack of 1889. In Ref 5 it is given as being formed in February. Chairman was Rev WS Turnbull. See 1880 for the opening of Stottercliff Cemetery. The seal of the Burial Board was the Horned Penistone Ram.
Sunday
26th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'The weather was extremely wet, which "completely spoiled the pleasure of the juveniles".'
  Emley Brass Band founded. Still in operation in 2013. (As recorded in an EPIP document)
10th Aug An organ for Hoylandswaine church opened on this day. The order for it had been given to Peter Conacher & Co Ltd. on 3rd June the same year.
  Holy Trinity Church built at Thurgoland, by George Edmund Street.
  Hoylandswaine Local Board formed. Ref 16 and Ref 30.
1871   Population - Penistone Parish was 8,110. Ref 11 but notes in 1877 below tell a different story. It is likely that the distinction is due to differences in scope between 'Penistone Parish' and the 'Penistone Board Area' and Thurlstone Board Area.' The population of England and Wales was counted in the census as 22,712,266. (A Vison of Britain)
  Penistone Workhouse population is 95, including 41 males and 29 females over 16, 17 boys and 8 girls. Ref 27. Penistone Workhouse.
Sunday
25th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'By 3pm on the Sunday, over 1,500 had arrived at Penistone Station for the Feast. The Shelley Brass Band played for dancing on the Sunday evening.'
August Removal of Telegraph Posts, Bord Hill. The posts were between Penistone and Stalybridge but their wires were said to present a great danger to birds flying into them. It was said that as many as 300 brace of grouse had met their end in this manner and much money had been made by people scooping them up and selling them. Representations were made to the authorities and the telegraph wires were re-routed via Carlecotes. A large flag was flown at the Dog and Partridge to celebrate the occasion. Ref 21
20th Oct. Nether Mill burnt down. This was a corn mill belonging to Mr Stanhope. (Ref 7)
11th Dec. Railway collision at Wortley. A woman was killed and several persons injured.
1872 10th Jan Mr George Hawksworth - Presented with a 'Purse of Gold' on his retirement with pension. Between 1840 and 1872, he had been a Rural Post Messenger, first between Barnsley and Penistone (until 1842), then Penistone to Thurlstone. He had travelled on foot more than 145,000 miles; had only five holidays and had never been absent through illness. Ref 5.
28th Feb Waterloo Veteran Dies. Most probably the last Waterloo veteran in the area, Mr Joseph Taylor died at the age of 87 years. From Ref 30.
11th May Foundation stone of Penistone Wesleyan Chapel laid. See 1873 for the opening. Ref 26 and Ref 30.
  Denby Dale Brass Band was founded this year, to disband in 1966. Contest results and information about its conductors can be found in Ref 32, (p. 80).
  First bell installed at Hoylandswaine church. The church was consecrated in 1869 and provision was made for this tenor bell and other bells to follow, which they did in 1892. The first vicar of Hoylandswaine, Rev W Barwis composed a few lines for the occasion of the tenor bell's arrival:
'Lift it gently to the steeple,
Let our bell be set on high,
there to fulfil its daily mission,
Midway 'twixt earth and sky.
'
  First annual Penistone Almanack published by the Wood family, to continue until 1958. See also 1984, when a spurious issue was published.
1872-3
  The Fleece Inn (24, Market Street, Penistone) closed around this time. After complaints and an unsympathetic Brewsters' Licencing session during the tenure of William Spooner Mitchell, the licence had been suspended. Furniture and public house fittings were sold by auction in 29th August 1872 but according to Ref 21 p72, John Dransfield said that it closed in 1873. This might have been down to a fine legal point. The location was where 'Images' hairdresser and the 'Cherry Tree' Chinese take-away is now. Ref 21. See the Old Inns page.
1873   JT Smith's founds a grocer/draper's shop in Thurlstone. Ref 17 p60. An advert in 1953 Almanack gives the address as 111 - 115 Manchester Road.
  The Prince of Wales public house, later to become Wiseman's shop, belonged to Rawsons Brewery (from Sheffield) and/or Gilmore's (another Sheffield brewery). It was bought this year by Lancelot Gibson Burdett who changed its use from public house to an off-licence and an family business to sell food. Around 1895, Lance's wife Catherine Burdett took over the off-licence (Lance was a carpenter). Although ownership stayed with Catherine, management of the shop passed down to her son Herbert Burdett around 1905. At some point in time, Joseph Brown and family rented the Prince of Wales as an off-licence but that business failed. In 1918 Alice Burdett, Herbert's daughter (Catherine's grand daughter) married Robert Hodgson Wiseman. Robert Burdett was born the same year as the marriage. In 1922 Robert Hodgson Wiseman (Robert and Sheila's father) took over the shop and turned it into Wiseman's Off-licence and grocers. The grocery shop was Wiseman's for many decades and it still trades under that name but is no longer connected with the Wiseman family. Many thanks to Mr Robert Wiseman for supplying details. See the Inns History page.
  Cawthorne Brass Band founded. Still in operation in 2014. Cawthorne Brass Band.
  New vicarage built in Denby opposite the church.
  Langsett Reservoir. Details of a new 'compensation reservoir' to be built at Langsett, set out in the London Gazette, published 21st November. The London Gazette website has a free, searchable database.
31st May Serious Waggonette Accident at Thurgoland Bridge, to members of Yorkshire Steel and Iron Works Cricket Club, Penistone. Benjamin Revel was killed and several others seriously injured.
9th Sept. Started in 1872, the New Wesleyan Chapel opened. This was St Paul's (same site as St Andrew's) and had cost £1,600 to build. An earlier chapel (1808) on the end of Penistone High Street had become too crowded for its congregation after the steelworks opened. St Paul's was lit by gas, heated by hot air and could seat 400. It later became riddled with woodworm and had to be demolished, to be replaced with the modern St Andrew's on the same site. When Netherfield United Reformed Church closed in 1981 its congregation was combined with that of St Paul's. Ref 5 and Ref 9. See also the Chapels page.
20th Sept. Railway Accident. A runaway train from Penistone had the accident at Wortley. Several people injured.
10th Oct First meeting of Penistone Local Board.
1st Dec Eliza Wimbush sentenced to 15 months imprisonment for 'uttering a forged cheque' at Penistone.
1874 1st Feb. New (current) Penistone Railway Station opened. The previous station became a goods depot, now abandoned but accessible from St Mary's Street roundabout ('Tracking Lives History Group' 2000, 11). It is the tall building near St Mary'sd Street roundabout.
3rd Jan Pengeston Masonic Lodge, 6933, established. It removed in 1914 into a new Masonic Hall built adjacent to Penistone Town Hall, Council Rooms and Carnegie Free Library. It lies above the Council Rooms. See 1914.
Oct - Dec Smallpox Epidemic in Penistone. Thirteen people died. Ref 30.
1875 16th Jan. St Mary's Church opened in Langsett at the sole cost of Lord of the Manor, Sir Lionel Milborne Swinnerton Pilkington, Bart., of Chevet Park near Wakefield. He was a large landowner in Langsett. Sheffield Corporation bought it and other land from Sir Lionel in 1897 for their Langsett Reservoir. Mostly Ref 7.
9th April Large quantity of stolen goods found at Hoylandswaine. Valued upwards of £100, the goods were found to belong to the MS & L Railway Co. They included a sealskin jacket valued at 27guineas, a large quantity of cloth, 108 yards of wincey, 100 reels of machine silk, 400 cotton reels, 37 toilet covers, 47 brass locks and more. The Guinea was equivalent to £1 and one shilling (£1.05 decimal equivalent) and was often seen right up to the decimalisation of UK currency in advertisements for high-cost items, such as carpets and television sets, even though there was no Guinea note or coin.
  Hoping for a railway station to be opened in Thurlstone, a deputation waited upon the directors of the Great Central Railway Co., but to no avail. See also 1899. Ref 12.
13th May Ecclesiastic Commissioners for England. In consideration of a benefaction of £883 5/-, 'set their common seal' to provide for a new vicarage in Penistone. This was published in the London Gazette, 21st May 1875. Its website has a free, searchable database.
Sunday
27th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'Around 2,000 people arrived via Penistone Station.'
27th Sept. Railway collision at Penistone Railway Station. Several injured.
1876 25th Mar Property Auction 3pm to 6pm, at the Rose and Crown, Penistone of buildings and land in Lower Denby.
'All that Freehold Messuage or Tenement, with good and convenient Outhousing, situate and being at Lower Denby, in the Parish of Penistone in said Riding, with about Thirty Acres of Land, lying altogether and contiguous to the said Messuage ; the estate of Mr John Burdett, deceased, and now in the Possession of Thomas Heaton, at the clear yearly rent of Thirty Pounds. The Housing is in good Repair ; and there is Outbuilding convenient for Shops : The Land is well fenced and watered, and Tythe Free : The Situation is Pleasant and Heathful, and suitable for either Gentleman or Tradesman : Is about Five Miles from Barnsley; and Two from Penistone.' Notice the date was 'Lady Day', which was an important date for legal matters. See 1751 and notes about quarter days on the Timeline page.
25th May Rose and Crown Inn Sheephouse Hill, Midhope closed. This had flourished in the coaching era. See the Old Inns page.
17th Jun Penistone Market Place widened at a cost of £500. Ref 26. This was achieved by removing a portion of the Grammar School house at Kirk Flatts. From Ref 30 and 1878 Almanack.
Mid June Rare Birdsong. A nightingale sang in Warkbank Wood, Thurlstone for several nights, between 10th and 17th June.
  JC Milner of Thurlstone visited the Italian Patriot Garibaldi in Rome. Ref 30.
  St John's National School (Church Street) opened
4pm
24th Aug
Cubley Farm Auction. This large site accommodated the new estate centred on Hackings Avenue, which was built in the next century, and what became Cubley hall public house. Abridged details:
Auctioned by Mr AE Wilby at the Rose and Crown Hotel. Cubley Farm containing with the site of the buildings, 63 Acres, 2 Roods and 28 Perches. Freehold except for a field, 7a, 3r, 13p, which was Freehold and Copyhold. The homes and buildings were 'commodious' with the land 'in a high state of cultivation', with Mr Michael Marsden as tenant. The Auction sign, its full text and a plan of the farm area are on display in Cubley Hall. Most of the land being auctioned was on the other side of Mortimer Road from the Hall. See 1921-22
1877 17th Jan Fire at Mr White's Chemist shop in Penistone. (1882 Penistone Almanack).
  Penistone (Local Board District)
Area - 1133 Acres. Population at Census of 1871 - 1,557. Estimated Population at middle of 1877 - 2,000. Registered Deaths in 1877 - 32. Registered Births in 1877 - 107. Excess of Births over Deaths - 75. Occupied Houses - 420. Children between ages of 3 and 13 years - 700.
Thurlstone (Local Board District)
Area - 8,117 Acres. Population at Census of l871 - 2,639. Estimated Population at middle of 1877 - 3,000. Registered Deaths (includiug Union Workhouse) - 45. Registered Births - 112. Excess of Births over Deaths - 67. Occupied Houses - 430. Children between ages of 3 and 13 years - 905.
Meteorological
The Townships of Penistone and Thurlstone extend over an area of 9250 acres, the greater part of which is wild moorland. The elevation above the sea level varies from 600 to 1600 feet, the higher ground being to the westward. The Rainfall varies considerably, increasing with the elevation. Daily observations at Weirfield House, 700 feet above the sea, give the following results:-
Total Rainfall in 1876 - 36 inches.
Total Rainfall in 1877 - 42 inches.
Total Rainfall in 1878 to the end of October - 30 inches.
"One inch of rain means a gallon of water spread over a surface of nearly two square feet, or a fall of about 100 tons upon an acre."
Vital statistics for 1877 and meteorological notes by AM Wilson, MD, Medical Officer of Health. Note the differences between numbers given here and those from the census in 1871, which are most likely due to different zones being included.
14th Feb Proceedings for Liquidation against grocer and shopkeeper, Nathaniel Littlewood of Thurlstone, with a 'First General Meeting' of creditors at Noon at Dransfield's Offices, Penistone. At 3pm the same day, similar proceedings for William Stead Woodhouse of Midhopestones. William M Dransfield was solicitor for these deptors. From the London Gazette of 2nd February 1877.
22nd Feb Thurlstone School Board. First meeting of the new Thurlstone School Board on this day. Members were: John Beever, JH Goddard, John Hinchliffe, William Smith and John Wainwright. Ref 30.
  Houses built at the top of Church Street. From a plan kindly photographed by Frances Barkworth (former proprietor of the Art House Cafe): 'Plan of Two Houses and a Shop to be erected in Penistone for ZW Tinker - 1877'. The plan is stamped by J Greaves, Estate Agents and Surveyor, Thurlstone and Penistone. These were commissioned by Zachariah Tinker who the Barkworths understood to had lived at No 11 and to have run a joinery business from the workshops at the rear. They also made coffins. No 11 is the unusual building on Church Street with a castellated roof section. When renovating 3a Church Street to make it suitable for a cafe, they found a floorboard signed on the back by: Joseph Hodgson, Mary Stephenson, Zachariah Tinker and another name which thay could not make out. It was dated 13th May 1865. Many thanks to Frances for the information and photographs.
  Netherfield Chapel - Additional burial ground purchased, but the burial board, which had been in existence since 1870, is 'as mute as if the happy despatch had been performed on its own body'. Ref 9. See also the Chapels page.
13th June. Penistone huntsman, Harry Mitchell, drowned at Spring Vale, presumably in the River Don.
  Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway builds fourteen houses near the passenger Railway Station in Penistone.
  William Hoyland starts an Umbrella Frame Factory at Millhouse Green. Ref 1 p150.
July South Yorkshire Times founded. For many years it reported on and had readership in the Penistone area. In recent times, it concentrated principally on the Dearne area and no longer became available in Penistone. It predates its biggest rival, the Barnsley Chronicle, by twelve years.
October Denby Dale's 21-arch Stone Viaduct started being built by Naylor Brothers, with a tender of £27,650. It was opened on Whit Sunday, 1880. This was to replace the earlier (and rickety) timber viaduct, which had been completed in time for the line opening 1st July 1850.
  After the Old Wesleyan Chapel was outgrown by the congregation (see 1872), it was purchased by Mr LP White and converted into two houses, now 22 and 24 High Street. Ref 9.
1878 6th May Millhouse School - Foundation stone laid. Ref 30.
5th Aug Quadruplets - John. Thomas. George, and Hannah, children of Harrison and Mary Tomlinson, of Penistone Green, at one birth. Two of the boys were still-born, the others died shortly after. A donation of £2 was received fron the Queen. Ref 30.
1879 NY Day Weights and Measures Act 1878 came into force on 1st January 1879. This regularised the usual imperial measures and made any irregular measures illegal with a maximum 40 shillings fine (£2 in modern money). Heaped measures were forbidden. Perhaps surprisingly, trade could also be legally conducted using Metric weights and measures. Not all of the measures would be familiar in the present day. One line in the 1880 Almanack reads: 'The quart shall be a fourth of a gallon, tbe pint an eighth part; two gallons shall be a peck, eight a bushel, eight such bushels a quarter, and thirty-six such bushels a cbaldron.'
  Millhouse Boarding School opened, at an estimated cost of £2,000. Ref 1 and Ref 16. Another source (Ref 30) is titled 'Millhouse Schools Opened.'
  Penistone's Water Supply - This was a hot topic in the 1879 Penistone Almanack:
'The Wogden, The Scout, The Long Grain, and The Racecommon Schemes, have each had their day. Great credit is due to the author of each separate scheme, the time and trouble involved in bringing anyone of them before the public must have been considerable, and although each proposal had its own adherents before, no one of them seem to have derived sufficient support after the election to bring it to a successful issue. Micawber like, we are now waiting for something to turn up.'
  Stottercliffe Cemetery - Another important topic in the 1879 Penistone Almanack:
'The works necessary for the formation of the Stottercliffe Cemetery have been begun during the summer. The site, which is about equidistant from Penistone and Thurlstone, has been paid for some time. The contracts are as follows: For the Chapels Messrs. C Marsh and Richard Beever for the masonwork, Messrs. Hawley for the woodwork and painting, and Mr Taylor for the plumber's work; for the road making and the drainage Mr. George Wainwright is the contractor. The Architects are Messrs. Flockton and Gibbs, of Sheffield, and Mr. John Greaves is Surveyor for the Board. Considerable progress has already been made with the various works. May we hope that the Board will make an effort by planting trees, etc., to change the otherwise very bleak appearance of Stottercliffe -many cemeteries, even in small places are models of neat and tssteful arrangements; even in the churchyard further planting of trees at the east end would be a great improvement. Ground has also been provided by the Board for a burying place in Hunshelf, but nothing further has been done at present.'
Feb Distress among Penistone's working classes, presumably referring to increased unemployment. Relief upwards of £80 distributed by a committee of local people.
15th July Fatal Accident at Bullhouse Colliery, Thurlstone. James Haigh, 56, of Middlecliff, officiating as banksman in the absence of the usual banksman, fell sixty feet into the bottom of the pit. He was putting some corves in the cage, ready to go down, when he missed his footing. He was removed alive but died soon after, being in a fearful state. An inquest was held in The Blacksmith's Arms, Millhouse, two days later. The pit works of John Hinchcliff produced gannister and coal. Ref 21 p8.
1st Sept. MS & LR, Clayton West branch line opened.
1880 1st Jan Thurlstone Old School - Re-opened by Thurlstone Board. Ref 30.
  Winterbottom's Wire Mill was founded this year by George Winterbottom in Oxspring. Walk Mill had been used for many years as a fulling mill, to wash woollen cloths. It was set low down in the valley and near to the River Don quite close to the spring referred to in the name of Oxspring. It used water power to start with. In 1849, Messrs Ingham and Bower conveyed stone from Walk Mill bank by a tramway on the side of the River Don to build Penistone Viaduct. In 1988 George Winterbottom took Walk Mill over and converted it into a wire mill. See the Winterbottom page.
22nd April First piped water to Penistone, pumped from Thurlstone Pumping Station, to replace the Town Pump and public wells (such as Penistone Green, Corruna Terrace and St. Mary's Well near Penistone Bridge) which were closed by the Local Board on 1st October of this year. Ref 5, &c. See also my miscellaneous Historical Pictures page.
From Dr Thorne's 1881 Report (Archive.org), we discover that Penistone's water supplies had been in very poor condition and had led to the spread of Enteric Fever. The same report describes the midden-privies that were in common use.

'Of the three principal public supplies, one, a spring at Bridge End, appears to be a wholesome water, and I could not hear of any cases of enteric fever in that part of Penistone where it is used. The two others are in the main street of Penistone, down which pass drains which must admit of the soakage of their contents into the surrounding soil. One is a dipping-well, the supply from which is known to pass through land, the surface of which is ploughed and manured, and it is conveyed to the roadside in a glazed pipe drain which passes within about 10 feet of a midden-privy containing sloppy contents. The other, a deeper well fitted with a pump, is in very near proximity to some square stone drains, and to an open ditch which receives sewage ; the springs supplying it are also, in all probability, liable to receive soakage from a large sloppy midden-privy in higher lying ground. In addition to the above supplies, there are:
(1) one or two springs and certain private wells, which do not appear to be contaminated;
(2) a number of wells, the pumps over which are chained up because the contents are known to be fouled by soakage from midden-privies and leaky drains, but which are resorted to during the
summer month;
(3) other wells, which though in constant use are either fouled, or liable to be fouled, or which must, from the nature of their surroundings, be looked upon with suspicion. With but few exceptions, however, even these supplies are scanty, and many inhabitants are obliged to resort to sewage-tainted brook known as the Cubley Brook for so-called “cleaning purposes,” if not at times for drinking and cooking purposes.'

16th May Denby Dale Viaduct opened on this day, Whit Sunday, having been started in 1877. Ref 6, p17. Of the stone viaduct's 21 arches, the 'skew' arch across Barnsley Road is regarded as an engineering achievement. This viaduct replaced an earlier timber one which frightened passengers. Fire buckets were placed at regular intervals on the timber viaduct but were never filled no more than halfway, as any more water would have been lost by the vibration of trains. See 1847.
3rd June Death of James Bolton, late foreman mason at Penistone new station, aged 47 years.
5th July Oxspring School opened in the same year that it was built. Oxspring School Board was formed in 1877, Chairman Mr AJ Siddons. Ref 12.
1st Aug. Stottercliffe Cemetery - Opened to replace the full churchyard of Penistone St John's Church as the parish burial ground.  The seal of the Burial Board was a design of the Horned Penistone Ram. See 1870 for the formation of The Burial Board of the Ecclesiastic Parish of Penistone.
2nd Aug. Worsborough Colliery branch line to Moor End pit at Silkstone was connected to Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway's main line at West Silkstone Junction. This link required two tunnels, with Silkstone No.1 being the longer at 289 yards. To its east, Silkstone No.2 was just 74 yards. The notorious Worsborough incline involved coal trains labouring up a 1:40 gradient for 3½ miles. This would demand up to four locos including one or two bankers. In 1925, a specially-built 2-8-0+0-8-2 Beyer-Garratt locomotive was put to work on this line. It was the most powerful steam engine ever to run in Britain. See the 'Forgotten Relics' site for a full description.
20th Oct. Great Snowstorm. Oak trees damaged. Ref 7
1881 18th Feb Penistone and District Conservative Association formed. Ref 26.
Feb Footpath Moved - The footpath which formerly ran from Dobbin Gaps to Spring Vale under the Railway Bridge, and between the Steel Works and the brook, was diverted at this time having been formally inspected by two Justices of the Peace. The diverted path now passes on the south side the railway in the road near Corunna Terrace. This would be somewhere near the current Green Road around where the road up from the bridge levels out. From Ref 30.
  Population of Penistone was given as 2,254 for 1881, in the 1889 Almanack. The population of England and Wales was counted in the census as 25,974,439, up by more than 3 million in the previous decade. (A Vison of Britain)
  Population of Penistone Union Workhouse was 97, plus 14 vagrants and five staff (1881 census). The staff were: Master - James Walton, Matron - Mary Walton, School Teacher - Emma D Temperley, Infirmary Nurse - Margaret Horsefield and Porter - William Hayes. Ref 27. Penistone Workhouse.
 

Friendly Societies - Listed in the 1881 Penistone Almanac. Friendly Societies were mutual assistance groups set up as lifelines to fund illness or hard times. It was a kind of insurance system requiring a regular subscription from members. There was no welfare or NHS in those days.

  • Independent Order of Oddfellows - Loyal Hope Lodge No 864, Mutual Union. Meetings at the White Hart Inn, Penistone Bridge. Number of Members - 231, Capital, £1819 16s 3½d. Secretary: Mr Allen Crossley, Spring Vale.
  • Royal Foresters - Court Hopeful, No 173. Meeting 7.30pm on the third Saturday of each month in the Spread Eagle Hotel, Penistone. Number of Members - 222, Capital, £1221 14s 6½d. Secretary: Mr Jas. Shaw, The Observatory, Cubley.
  • Druids - Freedom Lodge, No 571. Meetings every fourth Saturday at Mr William Lake's, Blue Ball Inn, Thurlstone. Number of Members - 194, Capital £995 5s 6d. Secretary: Mr J H Goddard.
  • United Order of Free Gardeners - Vernon Wentworth Lodge, Hoyland Swaine.
    Number of Members - 150, Sick Fund, £700, Funeral Funds, £150. Secretary: Mr Elijah Chappell.
  • Ancient Order of Foresters - Court Flower of the Forest. Meetings every fourth Saturday, Spread Eagle Hotel, Penistone. Number of Members - 94, Capital £210. Secretary: Mr Fred Andrew.
  • Order of Shepherds, Ashton Unity - William Tell. Monthly meetings at the Blacksmith's Arms, Thurlstone. Number of Members - 76, Capital £212. Secretary: Mr George Hinchliff.
  • Penistone and Midhope Operative Conservative Benefit Association. Quarterly meetings on the first Saturday in March, June September and December, alternately at the White Hart and Bridge Hotel, Penistone Bridge, and Club Inn, Midhope. Number of Members - 50, Capital £350. Secretary: Mr T Reyner, Thurlstone.
  • Maid of the Glen. Quarterly meetings at the Black Bull Inn, Thurlstone. Number of Members - 31, Capital £92. Secretary: Mr George Hinchliff.
  • Independent Order of Oddfellows - Off-shoot of Hope Lodge, above. Unspecified meetings at the Blacksmith's Arms, Millhouse. Number of Members - 22, Capital £140. Secretary: Mr N Crosland.
  • Penistone Branch of the Society of Amalgamated Engineers. Meetings at the Spread Eagle Inn, Penistone. Number of Members - , Capital £ . Secretary: Mr Thomas Pashley.
Nov Penistone's Streets Named and Numbered for the first time. Ref 1. On an older plan, dated 1749, High Street was marked as 'Town Street' and called 'The Street'. In some cases it was called 'Penistone Street'. Out of interest, the point where Market Street becomes High Street is at Gregg's the Bakery, which is Number 1 High Street.
1882   New Sunday School and classrooms added to Netherfield Chapel, Huddersfield Road. Ref 17 p39. See 1788, 1902, 1972, 1981.
  Purpose-built Cattle Market opened behind the Old Crown Inn, 1st June. Ref 6.
1883   Penistone Show moved from Thursday to Saturday to avoid Market Day.
1884   Explosion at Yorkshire Steel and Iron Works, Penistone (which later became David Brown's). Seven men injured, one of whom died shortly afterwards.
15th April Meeting of Penistone parishioners called to consider the reorganisation of Penistone Grammar School. This was much advertised and was to organise a 'new scheme' in the running of the school; to raise the teaching standards from what had gradually come to be little more than elementary standard under an aging schoolmaster. Prior to this, an experimental period of fee-paying students (Four Guineas a year = £4.20), tutored by an Oxford Fellow, proved a failure and standards had returned to that of an elementary school upon his departure. The public meeting came up with proposals to appoint trustees, that the standard of knowledge needed for entry be raised and that no free instruction be given except by scholarships carrying total exemption from tuition fees. This was put to the Charity Commissioners. Ref 19 p316.
  Penistone becomes the principal town of the Holmfirth Parliamentary Constituency. Ref 2. See also April 1885 below.
  Foundation of the Cawthorne Museum Society, by Rev'd Charles Pratt. A small museum opened in an old cottage. Admission was One Penny (1d). See 1887 and 1889.
  First record of a match held by The Ploughing Association. Ref 17 p3.
16th July The Bullhouse Bridge Railway Accident. The 12.30pm Manchester London Road to London King's Cross express derailed after a driving wheel axle broke on the locomotive. Carriages became uncoupled, derailed and went down the banking resulting in 24 deaths and 16 injuries. 19 people died on the spot. Most were women. See the sketch Picture at GracesGuide. An information board has been fitted to what is now the Trans-Pennine Trail, the former Woodhead Line, to commemorate the accident. See also the Hansard of 7th September 1886, where Mr Channing discusses the use of vacuum brakes on this line.
9th Sept Elliot Hawkyard killed by a fall from Huddersfield Viaduct.
1885 1st Jan. The Barnsley Junction Railway Accident at 8.29am on a very cold winter's day, resulted in four dead and more than forty people injured. A broken axle on an empty goods train coal wagon, going the opposite way, caused it to hit a carriage on an excursion train going from Sheffield to Liverpool. The carriage was "Smashed to matchwood."
11th April 'The Penistone Division Liberal Association' formed by the 'Liberal 200', at a meeting held at PGS (in Market Place). This followed alterations to Parliamentary Divisions in the West Riding the same year, which proposed that Penistone have its own Parliamentary Division (see 16th April). Ref 7 p68
16th April Mr WH Leatham proposed to Parliament that the new Parliamentary Division be called 'Holmfirth Division' instead of Penistone. He stated that the population of Holmfirth was 17,000, while that of Penistone was only 10,000, and the size and importance of Holmfirth were very much greater than those of Penistone. Mr Stuart-Wortley, the Member for Sheffield, defended the name proposed by the Boundary Commissioners:
"The Gentleman in charge of the Bill appeared to be disposed to throw over the recommendations of the Boundary Commissioners on every conceivable opportunity. Holmfirth might have the advantage in population over Penistone; but it was deficient in the essential element of position. He would ask any hon. Member who was acquainted with the locality whether Peniston or Holmfirth occupied the best known position, and he had no hesitation in saying that everybody would know exactly where Penistone was; whereas there would be a difficulty in finding out the position of Holmfirth without searching the map. (etc.)" The amendment was accepted and Holmfirth chosen for the Division, 125 against 63. (Full text in 11th April Hansard, about 20% down the page).
8th May Penistone Parliamentary Division regained its right and proper title from Holmfirth. Mr Stuart-Wortley returned to the Commons with a strengthened argument and moved to substitute Penistone instead of Holmfirth as the name of the Southern Division of the West Riding of Yorkshire. Mr S-W explained that, although a ruling had been made, Penistone had been the name selected by the Boundary Commissioners, and that:
"The town was the only railway centre in the district, and 69 passenger trains stopped there every day. Holmfirth, on the other hand, was a kind of cul-de-sac, to which very few trains went."
After some further debate, the question was put and the motion carried. The House divided: Ayes 57; Noes 44: Majority 13. Other Amendments were made. (Full discussion in 8th May Hansard, about a quarter-way down the page).
6th June Penistone Wesleyan Chapel's new organ opened, at a cost of £80. See also the Chapels page.
June The first Penistone Sing. This annual event took place (indoors if wet, outdoors if dry) on the first Sunday after St John's Day (24th June), in deference to the saint that Penistone Church was dedicated to. The Sing came to an end around the late 1960s or early 1970s. A supposedly annual Folk Festival, which debuted in 2011, continued the 'Sing' tradition by being scheduled around the time of St John's Day but was short-lived because of bureacratic deficiencies.
From 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone & District', 2006, which does not quite agree on the same year as a newspaper cutting in Mrs Marsh's collection (Ref 29, see 1886 below).
1885/86 Dec - Mar Remarkably severe winter with snow laying on the ground from 29th December to 22nd March. A fearful snowfall with strong East winds on 1st March, led to deep snowdrifts in the North, 'obliterating the usual landmarks' in Penistone.
1886 25th Jan Depression in trade. A relief committee was formed in Penistone.
April High Flatts Sanatorium established. Address given as Denby Dale. This was for the 'Restoration of inebriate women of the working or middle class'. President: Mrs Morell of York; Vice-Presidents, Mrs Bardsley of the Vicarage, Huddersfield; Mrs Butterworth of Broom Hall, Sheffield and Mrs Dransfield, Penistone; Treasurer: Mrs D Doncaster, Sheffield; Secretary: Mrs Wood of 5 York Place, Huddersfield; Financial Secretary: Mrs WH Wood of Newhouse, Denby Dale; Matron: Mrs Peake. Details from Ref 12 and other almanacks. In another version, the details were all the same except: Secretary, Miss Wood, 30 Fitzwilliam Street, West Huddersfield.
  Penistone Sing founded with Penistone Musical Society, based upon Kirkburton Sing which had started three years earlier. The idea of holding a 'sing' in Penistone was discussed by Messrs E Biltcliffe, John Stones, Charles Crossley, John Hawley, Charles Ellis and George Stones, while returning to Penistone after attending the Kirkburton Sing this same year. A small delegation was sent the next day to Kirkburton to glean information and a meeting was help upon their return. Local tradespeople pledged £20 to set one up and it was agreed to set up a Penistone Sing on Feast Sunday. Given that it would be only a month later, they used the Kirkburton Sing as their template. It was to run from 1886 to 1966 and held for most of that time near the Town Hall. In the last few years it moved to the Park Avenue Recreation Ground (approximately where the current Tesco is now). This was from a newspaper cutting in Mrs Marsh's collection (Ref 29) but also see 1885 above.
18th Dec. Penistone Conservative Club formed.
1887 29th Jan H Morley accidentally shot in Thurlstone.
15th Feb Mr William Vernon - Station Master of Penistone Railway Station. Presented with a gold watch, presumably upon his retirement. Ref 5.
  Building work starts on the Cawthorne Victoria Jubilee Museum, on the same site as the former museum in an old cottage. Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee was the same year. Cawthorne Museum. (From museum leaflet). See 1884 and 1889.
  Railway foot-bridge opened at Penistone Station. This would have led from the central platform (Sheffield to Manchester) to what is now Church View Road. It was close to semaphore signals and a water spout.
Sunday
26th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'George Stones, landlord of the Rose and Crown Inn, was charged with serving liquor outside of prohibited hours during the Feast.'
June Queen Victoria's Royal Jubilee - Celebrations in Thurlstone (27th) and Penistone (28th). Ref 16 and 1878 Almanack.
Saturday
27th Aug.

Fourth Denby Dale 'Jubilee' Pie, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Plates went on sale with a portrait of the Queen and a suitable inscription. The ingredients were listed as: 1850lbs of beef, 180lbs of mutton, 160lbs of veal, 180lbs of lamb, 250lbs of lean pork, 32 couples of rabbits, three hares, 42 fowls, 40 pigeons, a dozen grouse, 21 ducks, four plovers, one turkey, five geese, 100 small birds, two wild ducks and 40 stones of potatoes. So this was really a meat and potato pie. For the crust: 64 stones of flour, 100lb of lard, 50lb of butter, 40lb of beef suet, 40lb of dripping and 30 eggs. The pie was 8ft diameter and 2ft deep. The total weight was 2 tons and 4 or 5 cwt. The iron dish of sheet and angle-iron weighed about 15 cwt and the total cost was estimated at £250.

The pie waggon was drawn by ten horses from the White Hart Inn to Norman Park, where a tent had been erected on the higher ground. Again the crowd was boisterous and attempted to pull of pieces off the crust before the speeches were finished. It was almost a riot. Mr Henry J Brierley Esq. made the first cut with a knife and fork which had been made in Sheffield for the occasion and he was to keep them afterwards.

Unfortunately, it had been a hot summer's day and the Pie had stood too long. The hygiene standards had also not very high. When it was cut the smell was described as 'gamey'. In fact, the Pie stank badly and very few managed to make a meal of it. It was mostly blamed on a brace of game birds that were off but other carcases had not been properly prepared.

It was decided to dispose of the inedible pie by burying it in quicklime. Funeral cards for the Pie were quickly printed. One of them read:

Strong, strong was the smell that compelled us to part,
From a treat to our stomach and a salve to our heart;
But a Jubilee Pie with so mongrel a tale,
Was ne'er a success, hence it quickly turned stale.


Tho' lost to sight, yet still to memory dear,
We smell it yet, as though it is still here;
Though short its life, and quick was its decay,
'Twas best to bury it without the least delay.


Another card read:
'In Affectionate Remembrance of the Denby Dale Pie, Which Died August 27th, 1887, Aged Three Days.' :

A ceremonial procession took place on Sunday 28th August and the pie was taken to Toby Wood to be interred in quicklime, with much rejoicing. Most of the fine detail above was from 'Remarkable Occurrences', in the Dransfield Cabinet of Penistone Library, which was published within a few years of the event (a supposition from other articles in the book). The next Pie was 3rd September the same year. See also the third Pie in 1846 higher up this page and Ref 20.

3rd Sept. Fifth Denby Dale 'Resurrection Pie' baked by the women of the village and the event was kept fairly quiet, after the unruly behaviour of August and the one before. No game birds were included, either this time or in future. The contents were one beast of 47 stones, one calf, one sheep, 104 stones of potatoes and 48 stones of dough. The dish was the same as the August Pie.

This one was a complete success. The Pie was drawn by two horses to Inkerman Mill, where upwards of 2,000 people dined off it. Enough had been left over to feed another thousand so it was distributed among the poor people of the neighbourhood. Commemorate plates were again issued with portraits of the Queen. See Ref 20.
6th Oct. Jubilee Reading Rooms at Hoylandswaine opened by Col. Spencer Stanhope. The foundation had been laid 23rd June by Miss Stanhope.
28th Nov. PGS 'New Scheme' Approved - This scheme for the renewed management of Penistone Grammar School received Royal assent. It had been instigated to address the problem of declining educational standards at the school, with the view that a change of trustees might instil greater educational rigour. Earlier Masters had been 'Properly qualified to offer boys in the rudiments of a classical education', with English and Latin. An understanding had apparently been reached between the current Master (appointed 1786) and trustees that boys would be taught only the 'Inferior branches of learning', viz., reading, writing and accounts. Assistant Commissioner Mr JG Fitch of the Schools Inquiry Commissions visited the school around 1855-6, the previous Charity Commission Report being in 1827. Mr Fitch's report said that there seemed to be no reason to suppose that it had ever regained during that period its former position as a Grammar School or that the level of education had consistently been any higher than elementary. Part of the report said that: '.. nothing can be more melancholy than the state of stagnation and ignorance to which the school has been allowed to fall of late'. Ref 7 p315. See also the excellent PGS Archive website.
17th Dec. Penistone Liberal Club formed.
1888   Winterbottom's Wire Mill founded in 'Walk Mill', Oxspring, which had for many years been a 'Fulling' Mill where woollen cloth was washed. George Winterbottom had brought his family with him from Dodworth to Oxspring this year, including sons and grandsons. The Oxspring premises were taken on a lease and rented. The two sons carried on the business until the late 1920s, when it passed to his three grandsons in 1950, at which stage, with no sons to follow, control was extended to nephews and in-laws. After tense negotiations in 1970, the company was finally administered by Eadie Brothers of Paisley. See Winterbottom page.
6th May Netherfield Chapel - Celebration of Centenary of the founding of Netherfield Chapel, Penistone. From Ref 30.
31st May Rare Birdsong - A nightingale was noticed in woods between Hoylandswaine and Silkstone. From Ref 30.
23rd June Hoylandswaine - Foundation Stone of Hoylandswaine Jubilee Reading Room, laid by Miss Stanhope. From Ref 30.
Sunday
1st July
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'Travelling photographer Thomas Tyler was charged under the Lord's Day Act after he had been caught taking photographs for paying customers on the Sunday.'
25th Aug Memorial Stone of Thurlstone New Wesleyan Chapel laid by Mr J Dyson Esq., JP of Thurgoland.
4th Sept. Murder at the Blacksmith's Arms, Millhouse Green. While suffering from delirium tremens (DTs - an effect of withdrawing from alcohol), Landlord of two years, Harry Hey, shot dead his domestic servant Margaret Hill. He had been treated for the DTs before. He was found guilty at Leeds Assizes of 'wilful murder while in a state of unsound mind'. After treatment, upon his recovery he moved to Stocksbridge. Ref 1 p152. See also the Old Inns page.
6th Oct Hoylandswaine Jubilee Reading Room - The room was opened by Col. Spencer Stanhope. From Ref 30.
1889 January WRCC Election - West Riding County Council Election, Penistone Division:
  • 1065 Votes - J Dyson Esq., JP,
  • 987 Votes - J Kaye Esq.,
  • 216 Votes - JP TH Thorp.
22nd Jan. Penistone Grammar School - Opened under the 'New Scheme' explained in the 1887 item above. This was to improve teaching standards which had slipped.
30th Mar. The Huddersfield Junction Railway Accident, on the day of the Cup Final at The Oval in London and the Boat Race on the Thames. A MS & LR excursion with portions from Liverpool, Southport and Wigan, was heading via Penistone to King's Cross, London. The train jumped the tracks at points near Huddersfield Junction signal box. A King's Cross to Manchester mail train from the opposite direction ran into the crash but only damaged the tender. One person was killed and many injured, with some of them taken to the Wentworth Arms for treatment. See a report on the Victorian Web regarding railway accident statistics from 1884 to 1891.
16th April New Overseer for Penistone - Poll for Election of Assistant Overseer for the Township of Penistone. H Hanwell, 230; TH Thorpe, 216. From Ref 30.
20th April First Saturday Market held in Penistone on this day. This would have been mostly a livestock market as the retail markets did not become significant for many years from now. Ref 30 describes it thus: 'First Saturday Night General Market held at Penistone.' Also noted in the 1878 Almanack.
30th May Barnsley Chronicle Limited was incorporated in England & Wales.
22nd Jun Accident at Penistone Steelworks, one killed and several injured.
24th July Wesleyan Chapel opened in Thurlstone, by W Child Esq. of Huddersfield. Its date-stone reads 1888. Ref 6 agrees with Ref 17 p42, but both Ref 16 and Ref 30 give the date as 27th July. See my Thurlstone Views page.
  Staff at Penistone Union Workhouse were: Master - James Campbell Maillard, Matron - Mrs Beatrice Maillard, Medical Officer - Benjamin Chaston Gowing and School Mistress - Miss Annie Vaughan. Ref 27.
October Cawthorne Victoria Jubilee Museum was completed and opened this month, having been started in the year of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, 1887, on the instruction of local squire, Sir Walter Stanhope and his brother, the pre-Raphaelite painter, Roddam Stanhope. Philosopher and socialist John Ruskin was also involved. It was built by local craftsmen and used materials from the Stanhope estate, including a '13th century crook'. Cawthorne Museum. (From museum leaflet). See this Daily Mail article from 2010 about a WWII exhibition at the museum (still viewable in 2014).
  Staff at Penistone Union Workhouse were: Master - George Broadbent (37), Matron - Mrs Ann Broadbent (37), School Mistress - Emma Crossland (20), Medical Officer - (Not listed but likely to have been Benjamin Chaston Gowing), Infirmary Nurse - Annie Bunting, Porter - Charles Booth (41) and Domestic Servant - Ann Hartop. Ref 27. Penistone Workhouse.
1890 Sunday
29th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'As part of the festivities, the Penistone and Thurlstone Sunday School Committee ran an excursion of Bridlington. Around 580 took part.'
10th Oct First wedding solemnised at Bullhouse Chapel (erected 1692) between Mr John Hinchliffe Jr, of Bullhouse Hall and Miss Ada Smith of Bullace Grange. From 1891 Penistone Almanack.
13th Oct Mr Thomas Edward Taylor, JP, of Dodworth Hall, Lord of the Manor of Oxspring, died this day. From 1891 Penistone Almanack.
1891   The Population of the Penistone Parish was 9,568. Made up as follows: Penistone - 2,553; Thurlstone - 2,735; Gunthwaite - 68; Denby - 1,747; Ingbirchworth - 321; Oxspring - 322; Langsett - 263 and Hunshelf 1,559. In this year, there were 1,735 inhabited houses within the Rural (1,243) and Urban (492) District areas. Ref 19 p315. The 'Penistone Union' population (including surrounding villages - see 1849) was 17,266 across 30,882 acres, with a ratable value of £95,991. Ref 27. The population of England and Wales was counted in the census as 29,002,525, up by more than 3 million in the previous decade. (A Vison of Britain)
1892   Mr Joseph William Fulford, M.A. appointed as headmaster at Penistone Grammar School, having previously been second master of the East Retford Grammar School. He continued until 1921. See Ref 19 p324.
  Clark's Chemist opened at No1 Market Place in the old Cloth Hall. They marked their centenary in 1992 with special window displays. (Example)
 

The Bells of St John the Evangelist of Hoylandswaine, which had been consecrated in 1869. Five bells (1892) were added to the existing Tenor bell (1872), at a cost of £229 9s 2d. The original frame had been designed and constructed to accommodate all six bells.
Details of the bells:

  • Tenor - B Flat - dia 37½", 9 cwt, 2 qrs, 0 lbs
  • 5 - C - dia 34", 7 cwt, 2 qrs, 23 lbs
  • 4 - D - dia 32", 7 cwt, 0 qrs, 19 lbs
  • 3 - E Flat - dia 30", 6 cwt, 0 qrs, 25 lbs
  • 2 - F - dia 28½", 5 cwt, 2 qrs, 14 lbs
  • 1 - G - dia 27", 5 cwt, 0 qrs, 6 lbs
The Tenor has a Royal Coat of Arms with 'Patent' beneath and 'St John and Glory to the Father', 'Cast by John Warner and Sons', 'London 1872'. From a booklet 'The Parish Church of St John the Evangelist' - 'A Brief History of the Years 1869 to 1994' to be found in the local history section of Penistone Library.
24th Aug Army Billeted at Penistone. This was the 11th Battery Royal Artillery. Ref 31 p.35.
  A Smallpox outbreak towards the end of the year caused much alarm but had died out by the time of the New Year.
1893 25th Mar. The first sod was cut by Mr GW Moxon for the Wesleyan Chapel which was built this year in Ingbirchworth. It is interesting to note that this fell on 'Lady Day', which before 1751 was the first day of the legal year. It is likely that it was not relevent in this case.
  Methodist Chapel built near the Sheffield Road railway bridge. This was still marked on maps as a church in 1948 but was later to become Penistone Clinic. The building's former ecclesiastic nature can be easily deduced from the shape of its windows. See S Yorks Timescapes.
31st July Penistone Grammar School at Kirk Flatt demolished and the migration of the school to Wierfield House started. The existing school building was deemed inadequate to the needs of a school and this was not helped by its proximity to the livestock market in the street. In 1892 Sheffield Union Banking Company made an offer to buy the old school and a shop for £2,300. At the same time an offer came up for Wierfield House with three or four acres adjoining, for £1,500. See 1911 and Ref 19 p316. Built in the 1870s, Weirfield House was first depicted on the Ordnance Survey map of this year. The house is set within an irregular plot of land that extends from Huddersfield Road to Scout Dam and the mill race. See Ref 28 and PGS Archive.
  A Great Drought emptied Ingbirchworth Reservoir and only by the aid of the Dewsbury and Heckmondwyke Waterworks Board and the Sheffield mill-owners was a water famine in the Barnsley area averted, at great cost. This was before the Midhope Reservoir had been opened to supply Barnsley's drinking water. The Water Committee brought forward a plan to purchase Penistone pump works and add it to the Ingbirchworth supply but Penistone Rural Sanitary Authority already had an agreement to supply Darton and other districts, leaving little or no spare capacity to supply Barnsley. This led to the scheme being dropped.

Barnsley had plans to take water from Hagg Brook and its tributaries and a Water Bill went through the Lords. A General Election delayed matters and Sheffield Corporation, with similar ambitions, pushed forwards its own plans. A compromise was reached, with Barnsley giving up Thickwood Brook to Sheffield and Sheffield giving up Knoll Brook and agreeing to send compensation water to Barnsley. Ingbirchworth Reservoir was completed in 1868.
  The first Emley Show. The 100th show being in 2017. Emley Brass Band (broken site) Facebook.
18th Aug Hottest Day for the past fifty years. Ref 26.
1894   Thurlstone Urban District Council created. See Barnsley Archive on Penistone UDC.
1895   Penistone Urban and Rural District Councils created. The urban district of Penistone was created as a result of the 1894 Local Government Act. The area had previously been under the control of Penistone Local Board. The council was responsible for providing services such as housing, planning, parks and highways.
  Infirmary Building built on to Penistone Union Workhouse at Netherfield, which had opened in 1861. The infirmary was designed by GA Wilde. A two-storey extension and mortuary were added around 1917. Wounded soldiers used the workhouse infirmary during the Great War of 1914 - 1918. See 1861, Ref 27 and Penistone Workhouse.
Sunday
30th June
Penistone Feast. From 'Huddersfield Exposed' (slightly edited): Penistone Feast was traditionally held on the weekend following 24 June - being the Nativity Day of St. John the Baptist the saint of which Penistone Church is dedicated. It often included athletics and musical events. A local custom was that farmers would begin haymaking on the first day of the Feast, before attending in the evening. The page has some remarks about the various years' feasts:
'The Penistone and Thurlstone Sunday Schools ran an excursion of Blackpool with around 600 attendees.'
  The Prince of Wales public house, later Wiseman's shop. Catherine Burdett (wife of Lance, a carpenter) takes over The Prince of Wales. See 1873.
6th Aug New Midland Bank opened in Penistone. Ref 26. See also 1983 above.
Sept. Sighting of a steel-blue meteor towards the W.S.W. See Penistone History Rainfall page.
28th Sept The Church of St. Aidan, Oxspring, consecrated. Vicar, Rev. R A. Browning; Assistant Priest. Rev. E. T. Spencer; Church Officers of the District and Chapely of St. Aidan's, Messrs. Henry Senior, Leonard Wilkinson, V. Eastwood, G. Hinchliff, E. H. Jenkin and Dr. Townend ; Organist, Mr. George Ellis ; Verger, Mr. Wilkinson, West End. Sunday services-8 a.m. Holy Communion. 10-00a.m, Matins and Litany 6-30p.m. Evensong; 1st Sunday, Mid-day Celebration of Holy Communion. From Ref 23
1896 27th Jun Allan Crossley drowned in castle Dam.
  Several brilliant exhibitions of the Aurora Borealis in the early part of the year. See Penistone History Rainfall.
  Hoylandswaine Urban District Council created. The area had previously been administered by Hoylandswaine Local Board. It was responsible for similar services although in 1938, as a result of legislation to reduce the number of rural and urban districts in England and Wales, Hoylandswaine U.D.C. was abolished and the area transferred to an enlarged Penistone Urban District Council. See Barnsley Archive on Penistone UDC.
1st Aug. Sixth Denby Dale Pie baked, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Repeal of the Corn Laws. It used the same pie dish as 1887 and contained 300lbs of beef and veal and more than 100lbs of mutton. Around 2,000 portions were sold.
3rd Oct. Spring Vale Primitive Methodist Chapel - foundation stone laid. Ref 3. See also the Chapels page. Note that Spring Vale was usually written as two words until recent times.
8th Oct Wentworth Arms Hotel and six dwelling-houses sold for £11,600. Ref 26.
1897   Sheffield Corporation bought Langsett Church and other land from Lord of the Manor, Sir Lionel Milborne Swinnerton Pilkington, of Chevet Park near Wakefield, who was a large landowner in Langsett, for Langsett Reservoir. Mostly Ref 7. See 1875.
17th June Midhope Reservoir started. The first sod was cut by the Mayor of Barnsley. The eminent water engineer, Mr Charles Hawkesley presented a silver spade with an ebony handle to the Mayor for the purpose. An inscription on the handle read: 'Presented to the Worshipful the Mayor of Barnsley, Mr Ald. Wray, by Charles Hawkesley, C.E. on the occasion of the cutting of the first sod of the Midhope Reservoir, 17th June, 1897.'
  The MS&LR railway became the Great Central Railway. Ref 18. The Great Central Railway started as the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway, itself formed of the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester, the Grimsby and Sheffield Junction, the Sheffield and Lincolnshire, and the Manchester and Lincolnshire Union railways. See the Victorian Web to read about railway amalgamations in this era.
1898 11th Feb. New local newspaper started, the Penistone, Stocksbridge, Hoyland, Ecclesfield, and Chapeltown Express, and Wadsley, Oughtibridge, Deepcar, and Thurlstone Advertiser. It had eight large pages and was still operating for at least a few years later. In Ref 7, it is referred to in passing as the Penistone Express.
27th Aug Death and destruction at Cammel-Laird's Yorkshire Steel and Iron Works on Green Road. A rapidly spinning flywheel of 30 feet diameter and 40 tons in weight shattered and caused great destruction. Two men killed. See Grace's Guide. Ref 26.
  Lodge 509 of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffalos (RAOB or 'The Buffs') founded in Penistone, within the Sheffield Provincial Grand Lodge. It held its meetings in the Spread Eagle, Penistone right up until recent times. The Rev Canon Turnbull was an early member. The Lodge moved into the Huddersfield and District Province at the end of September 2011. Ref 12.
10th Nov Annual Ploughing Matches - at Water Hall, Penistone, in connection with the Penistone District Association. Ref 23.
13th Nov First Services of the Methodist New Connexion held in the Assembly Room, led by Rev. WH Lockley, preacher. The Assembly Room was to later converted to be Penistone Assembly Room Cinema, before the Town hall was built. This would be the red brick building just off the current St Mary's Street roundabout, on the left towards Julie's Cafe. Ref 23.
31st Dec The Messiah, performed by Shepley New Connexion Choir in the Assembly Room, Penistone. Ref 23.
1899   The Grammar School, Penistone. founded 1392. 'Disce aut Discede.' (From Ref 23).
Head Master: Joseph W Fulford.
Second Master: H Hardy, Professor of French of the University of Cambridge.
Science Master: C H Widdows, Certificated by Science & Art Dept.
Drawing Master: Edwin Haigh, Certificated Art Master.

This School is replete with every convenience for giving an advanced education, and is highly successful in all branches. Chemical and Physical Laboratories of the newest design. Lecture Hall and Manual Workshop in course of erection. Gymnasium, football and cricket fields adjoining the School. Two Exhibitions giving free education are annually offered for competition amongst boys attending the Elementary Schools of the district. Boarders received at reasonable charges. Prospectus, &c., giving full particulars on application to the Head Master.
  Penistone, Thurlstone and Oxspring Gas Company - Management listed in the 1900 Almanack (presumably the most recent line-up from 1899): Managing Director, Herbert Unwin, Esq.; Resident Manager, Mr. John Dempster. Gas Works, Talbot Road, Penistone. Formed under the Penistone Gas Act in 1858; Capital £10,000. The company now supplies the Penny-in-the-Slot meter. As a matter of interest, the penny meter was still in use throughout most of the 20th century and it was the normal way to pay for gas. In our Airey council house, the gas meter accepted penny or shilling coins right up to decimalisation of British money in 1971 (Direct Debit had not been invented).
29th Mar Grand 'At Home' - held by the Methodist New Connexion in the Assembly Room, Penistone. Ref 23.
3rd May Earl of Wharncliffe dies, aged 71 years. Ref 23.
15th May Fatal Accident - To Heaton Torr at Messrs. Cammell's Works. Ref 23.
20th June Sudden Death - of Mrs. Elizabeth DunhiIl, at Penistone Station. Ref 23.
25th June 14th Annual Musical Festival on Feast Sunday. £48 collected. Ref 23.
17th Aug Penistone Agricultural Show - 1,235 entries. Following on from this, a dinner connected with the Show was held on 18th September at the Wentworth Arms. Ref 23.
  The Great Central Railway Co. petitioned to open a railway station in Thurlstone (to no avail). Ref 12.
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate English calendar for year: Time & Date
Penistone

Trends in the 19th Century
Agriculture declined sharply between 1860 and 1880, (V of B Graph). Between 1850 and 1900, the population density (Graph) for the Barnsley area rose from about 1.5% to about 4.5% of persons per hectare. It was less than 1% in 1800. Public mobility had much improved during this century, starting from better road building and toll roads then taking off during the rapid expansion of the railways from the middle of the century. Now people could easily travel and even take day trips to the seaside.

With the River Don being a particular advantage, woollen cloth-making had been prevalent in particularly the Thurlstone area from the late medieval period. Sheep-farming was an essential part of this. We can still find weaver's cottages in Thurlstone. The River Don powered the water wheels for various textile processes, such as fulling mills, scribbling mills and a dye mill. With the expansion of railways and factories, the iron and steel-making industry became more prominent in our area during this century, as the cottage textile industry went into decline into the early part of the 20th century. Although power looms had started in parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire in the 1820s, they were not very evident in our area.

In local administration, Local Boards were succeeded by Urban or Rural District Councils, such as Penistone UDC, Penistone RDC, Thurlstone UDC and Hoylandswaine UDC.

Sources: Graphs from 'Vision of Britain'. Textile words influenced by SY Timescapes.


Penistone and Thurlstone in 1841
An article in the 1914 Penistone Almanack

Some interesting facts relating to Penistone are to be found in old Directories and from one published in 1841 by a John Pigott, we find that at that time, woollen cloth was manufactured in the neighbourhood, but not to a great extent, and that the general trade of the place was of a very confined nature.

From the Directory it appears that there were at that time five woollen cloth manufacturers, viz., Messrs. Hy. and Wm. Bray, John Crosland Milner, Geo. Moorhouse, Wm. Moorhouse and Son, and Thomas Tomasson. A stone quarry near the town, the property of Messrs. Brown and Rusby, produced stone of a very superior quality, which was sent to London and other parts of the kingdom. There is a list of stonemasons given, and of the five, four are called Marsh.

The Rev. Thos. King, B.A., was the then incumbent of Penistone, and the Rev. Samuel Sunderland, B.A., his curate. Mr King had a wooden leg and, living at Wakefield, rarely visited Penistone, and Mr. Sunderland was Master of the Free School (Boys). The Rev. Jas. Buckley was at Netherfield, and amongst the gentry was Mr. Samuel Hadfield, and it is interesting to remember that one scholar at the Grammar School at the present time has his fees paid by the Trustees of Samuel Hadfield's Foundation.

Of tradesmen there was a large proportion, and we find we had four blacksmiths, eight boot and shoe makers, four butchers, six cattle dealers, two coopers (both at Thurlstone), 16 grocers, five millers, eight tailors, and four wheelwrights. In addition, the doctors numbered three, all resident in Penistone, viz., John Booth, Richard Savile Jackson, and John Shackleton. Mr. John Hawksworth was postmaster.

The railways had not reached Penistone but coaches ran to Huddersfield and to Nottingham, calling at the Rose and Crown, then kept by Jonathan Brown, son of "Old Rumbo."

There were the "Black Bull," "Black Swan," "Blue Ball," "Blacksmith's Arms," the "Fleece," the "Horns," " Dog and Partridge," "Millers' Arms," "New Inn," "Old Crown," "Plough and Harrow," "Spread- Eagle," "Travellers' Inn," and the "White Hart."

Among the joiners we find Josh. Downing, John Hawley, Richard Lawton, Uriah Tinker, and Mell in Wilkinson. Cotton twining and silk winding were carried on by Joseph Milner at Ingbirchworth, and Mr John Wainwright, of Thurlstone, was a hair cloth manufacturer, and Mr. Wm. Wainwright was a rope and twine maker.

The letters arrived from Barnsley every morning at TO-30, and were dispatched at 12-30.

The parish of Penistone contained at the then last census (1831) 5200 inhabitants, of which number 700 were returned, for the township. Thurlstone's population was 1600, and Ingbirchworth's 400. There were places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and the Society of Friends, and two endowed schools. Miss Blount was mistress of the Girls' Free School.


Royalty During This Period
The Hanoverians came to power in difficult circumstances that looked set to undermine the stability of British society. The first of their Kings, George I, was only 52nd in line to the throne, but the nearest Protestant according to the Act of Settlement. Two descendants of James II, the deposed Stuart king, threatened to take the throne, and were supported by a number of 'Jacobites' throughout the realm. See The British Monarchy.

The Hanoverians, from 1714 to 1901:


Longevity and Population in the 19th Century
This little chart from Penistone Almanack 1900 gives some idea of Birth and Death Rates in Thurlstone from 1894 to 1898. It is not clear why the death rate increased so much in four years. A smallpox outbreak had visited two years previously. The population chart below that is from 'A History of the Parish of Penistone' (1906), by John Ness Dransfield.

Birth and Death rates Thurlstone

Populations in the area


The Channel Tunnel
We assume this to be a phenomenon of the 20th Century, but here it is in the 1879 Penistone Almanack:

Operations connected with the submarine tunnel have already begun on the other side of the Channel, several pits having been sunk to the depth of 110 yards. At the same time the French and English committees have definitely drawn up the conditions of working for the route. The property of the tunnel is to be divided in half by the length - that is to say, each company will possess half of the line, reckoning the distance from coast to coast at low tide. Each company will cover the expenses of its portion. The general work of excavation will be done, on the one hand by the Great Northern of France, and on the other by the Chatham and South-Eastern Companies, the two latter having each a direct route from London to Dover. All the materials of the French and English lines will pass through the tunnel in order to prevent unnecessary expenses and delay of transhipment, as in England and in France railway companies use each other's lines, and goods can pass from one line to another without changing vans. It is understood that an arrangement will be established for a similar exchange of lines between all the English and continental railway companies when the tunnel is completed. The tunnel will belong to its founders. At the expiration of thirty years the two Governments will be able to take possession of the tunnel upon certain conditions.

Oddly enough, any customs considerations did not appear in the text. Presumably it was not a serious issue at the time.

Atmospheric Polution
Another one that we associate with modern times, but an article in the 1880 Penistone Almanack took it seriously. This was at a time when every home and factory billowed out sulphurous smoke from coal fires and boilers. The article came from 'Engineer':

The Atmosphere of Large Towns
'In speaking of the sulphuric impurities in the air breathed in towns, Mr. J Mactear has stated in a paper read before the Society of Arts, that in well-constructed furnaces, where there is consequentIy no leakage of air into the flues, there is nearly 400 cubic feet of air passing for 1lb. of coal consumed; and taking an average of 1.5 per cent of sulphur in the coal, there is, therefore, equal to 0.665 grains of sulphuric acid per cubic foot of escaping gases, as compared to 0.2 grains of hydrochloric acid from condensers. He takes the coal consumed annually in Great Britain at 114,043,940 tons, and which at I per cent sulphur will give 3,500,000 tons of oil of vitriol escaping into the atmosphere, as compared to 44.716 tons from sulpuric acid works. It must, however, be admitted that it is difficult to lay down exact data from the percentage of sulphur in coal, for the estimation of sulphurous acid generated combustion, owing to some kinds of coal containing more lime than others, which necessarily retains part of the sulphur in the ash. The only reliable or satisfactory plan would appear to be the testing of the atmosphere in different localities.'

Sources Used in the Timeline
The Books:

Some small details were added from 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone & District', 2006, a few leaflets describing local walks and some anecdotal remarks from Penistone people. Where information is anecdotal, it has been marked as such.


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