Timeline of History in the Penistone Area


AD 1000 to AD 1600
Year Date Event
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate English calendar for year: Time & Date
43AD   Roman Invasion. The population of Britain some time after the Romans had invaded was probably about 4 million and about 3 to 4 million in Ireland. From Local Histories.
to 410
  End of Roman Rule in Britain. This happened in stages. See the Wiki on Anglo-Saxon settlement.
793   The Vikings Invaded. See The Vikings.
862     Denby founded at this time when the Danes conquered York. Denby is the umbrella name for both Upper Denby and Lower Denby and quite distinct from Denby Dale (formerly 'Denby Dyke') a few miles away. The early settlers were of Danish origin and Denby was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1089. See Denby's potted history (under 'Local Context'), on Denby Cricket Club's Cricket Heritage site. Also seek out Chris Heath's books on the Denby area (easy to find in local Garden Centres).
1013   A great invasion began this year by King Swein and his son Cnut (usually written as 'Canute'). Swein is connected with Hoyland Swaine and the Swaine name can still be found in our area.
1066   William the Conqueror - Invaded England. William I, Duke of Normandy, ascended to the English throne on 25th December 1066. His son Henry I (Beauclerc) was born at Selby in 1068.
1069   'Harrying of the North'. The Penistone area was devastated by William the Conqueror in his campaign to destroy villages and livestock in reply to an earlier rebellion.
1086   Penistone was laid waste by the time of the Domesday Book, which mentions Penistone as ‘Pangeston’. It was known in 1066 to be owned by Ailric but, following the Norman Conquest, was razed in 1069 by the advancing army. To quash sporadic rebellions, King William I of Normandy commanded that all crops and herds, chattels and foods should be burned to ashes, so that the whole of the North be stripped of all means of survival. This was called the 'Harrying of the North' with more than 100,000 people perishing of hunger. Having subdued the population in Yorkshire, William replaced Anglo-Saxon leaders with Norman ones.
, ,   Population of England. At the time of the Domesday Book, England had a population of about 2 million, which was much less than in Roman times.
1087   William II (William Rufus). He ascended to the English throne this year.
1093 - 97   Hard Winters, Famine, Disease. 1093 to 1097, with the possible exception of 1094. These were very hard times and only twenty five years or so after King William's army had destroyed what they could find in the north of England. More famines and pestilences would visit the country in those years. See List of Famines and Pestilences.
1120   'Penistone Becomes an Independent Parish' - According to a millstone in Penistone churchyard 'Sensory Garden'. Also, the 'Wainwrights of Penistone Parish' (Rootsweb genealogy site) add that it was '... from the larger Silkstone parish by the 1120s at the latest, when the tithes and other dues of Silkstone were granted to the monks of St. John the Evangelist at Pontefract.'
1227   A charter of agreement, dated at 1227, between John de Midhope and Hyldenus Waldershelf, is reputed to be the first record of Midhopestones, during the 56-year reign of Henry III (1st October 1207 – 16th November 1272). His contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. See Stocksbridge History Archive (Midhope)
1229   Penistone was described this year as being populous but widely scattered region. Its church had two rectors at this time, until the Archbishop of York, Walter Grey, consolidated their position into one. See the Church History page.
1232   Penistone Church recorded in the Archbishop of York's records as being dedicated to St John the Baptist. Some parts of the church are dated to around 1200. The roof bosses and corbels in the nave date from around 1370. Ref 1.
1235   General Famine in England. London was worst hit, with 20,000 dead.
1260   Penistone Hunt started in the time of Elias de Midhope. The Hunt continued for nearly 700 years, to finish in World War II when feeding difficulties closed the kennels at Cat Hill. The hounds were for a time kept at the members' homes. Ref 17 p76. In 'Hounds in the Old Days' by Sir Walter Gilbey, the hunting of stag was from the start of winter on 22nd December to the Feast of St John on 24th June. The Penistone Hunt is mentioned on page five and it is suggested that it had a royal charter.
1279   Groat coins were struck for the first time, worth four pence each. See Royal Mint Museum.
1284   John Charlton granted the Manor of Penisale to Elias de Midhope, who already possessed the Manor of Midhope. Elias had a number of successors (who were also called Elias) until 1337, when the Manor of Midhope passed to the Barnby family. The exact location of Penisale is uncertain but Prof. David Hey thinks that there is evidence for it to have been at or near Langsett. See next item, about Penisale Market. Ref 1.
1290 8th June Charter for Penisale Market - Granted 8th June to Sir Elias de Midhope the lord of the manor at Langsett for - 'A market on Tuesdays and a fair on the eve-day, day and morrow of St Barnabas'. The exact location of Penisale is uncertain but the local historian Prof. David Hey and others think that the evidence points to it being at, or near to, Langsett. St Barnabas Day is 11th June. Ref 7 and Ref 9. There had been an old yew tree in Alderman's Head ground under which the court for the Manor of Penisale had been held from time immemorial. It was said that a cloth market and fair were held around the tree. The cloth would traditionally have been put on tenters fixed to the tree. These (tenter hooks) were used to stretch cloth as it dried. The tree was set on fire in 1758 by a Bradfield angler who had lit it to keep warm while fishing. The tree burned for five days, losing to history the actual location of Penisale Market and fair. See also 1699 for Penistone Market Charter and 1758 for the yew tree's demise.
1345,16   General famine in England. Also many deaths through disease.
to 1350
  Black Death sweeps the country, killing half the population of England. In 1347 news reached England of a horrifying and incurable disease that was spreading from Asia through North Africa and Europe. It reached London in 1348. It killed around 40,000 in London alone and mass graves were filled.
1377   White Hart built by Penistone Bridge at Bridge End. Mary Jackson was listed in a 1922 Penistone directory as victualler. See the Old Inns page and, for some aerial views, the White Hart page.
1346   Terrible Rains and Flooding leading to loss of crops and widespread starvation. The whole of the Trent Valley was submerged and people and cattle drowned. A severe famine.
1348   The Black Death swept away around three out of five of the population of England. This was a world-wide epidemic.
1368   Chapel and Well of St James built at Midhope by Thomas de Barnby. It was technically a chapel of easement, with the Parish Church of Bradfield being about five miles away. An earlier building used as the Chapel of St James was converted into a granary by Thomas at the same time. That building collapsed around 1897 and no longer exists. The new chapel eventually fell into a 'ruinous state' and was restored in 1705.
1379   Subsidy Rolls (Poll Tax Returns). The young King Richard II had imposed a poll tax on his subjects this year to help finance the Hundred Years’ War with France. Genuki has a list of those named in Penistone parish, in the Staincross wapentake: Penistone: 12, Ingbirchworth 9, Gunthwaite 11, Thurlstone 33, Oxspring 12, Hunshelf 26, Denby 25, Langsett 23 and Swindon 20. The Poll Tax had been introduced in 1377, in 1379 and 1381 to to finance the war against France. Each tax was slightly different. In 1377, every lay person over the age of 14 years (who was not a beggar) had to pay a groat (4d) to the Crown. By 1379 social class came into it and the lower age limit of 16, and 15 two years later. The levy of 1381 was a combination of flat rate and graduated assessment. The minimum amount payable was a groat but tax collectors were expected to account for a 12d a head mean assessment. The poorest would, in theory, pay the lowest rate with the deficit being met by a higher payment on wealthier people. See Wikipedia for more.
1392   The roots of Penistone Grammar School were founded in Penistone Church, as teaching was done in the church in those days, later in the 'Lady Chapel' on the south side. A gift of land on Kirk Flatts, near the Church, was donated by Thomas Clarel for the purpose of building a school for boys. The early school masters were probably priests. See the history intro page for the Clarel Coat of Arms, which has generally been adopted as the Penistone Coat of Arms. Also see 1716 and PGS Archive. Sheffield Archives also holds Historic Records of PGS.
1413   The first vicar of Penistone Church appointed. Up until then the rectors were local landowners. See the Penistone Vicars page.
1442 May Day Lord of the Manor, Thomas Clarel drowns in the River Don.
1443   PGS - Following further endowments, Penistone Grammar School rebuilt. See PGS Heritage and my PGS page.
1495   Tower completed at Silkstone All Saints' Church. It replaced an earlier one which had collapsed in 1479.
12 Jan. Boulder Bridge, Spring Vale. As he lay dying, Father William Wordsworth asked on this day for a 'Bulder Bridge' to be built, for which he gave 'twelve silver pieces'. He had been the Penistone vicar for forty years. Boulder Bridge was built over the River Don at Spring Vale. Ref 16. It is likely that the bridge (now listed) was rebuilt in the eighteenth century.
1497   Parish Registers. A regulation by Cardinal Wolsey led to Parish Registers being set up to record the names of children, their Godfathers and Godmothers, and witnesses present during the christening. See 1538.
c. 1500   Square Norman tower of Penistone Church built in the Perpendicular style of Gothic architecture, similar to that of Silkstone. It is 80 ft high and it had eight pinnacles. Ref 1. See the Church History page.
1524   Boundary Dispute between Thurlstone and Holmfirth farmers. A manor court in Thurlstone heard that Holmfirth farmers, 'Having recently taken their own common' were also using Thurlstone's common land for grazing their cattle. Violence followed, resulting in the death of Thurlstoner Robert Mokeston. Further legal representations went on but the end result is lost in history. (Ref 14 P115). Boundaries were not always well-defined in those days and boundary stones might be moved or go missing. The old tradition of 'Beating the Bounds' came from these days, usually performed on Rogation Sunday. Villagers would walk around their village boundaries and beat their small children at each boundary post, to crudely instill a firm knowledge of their locations. Local places still hold boundary walks but (hopefully) tend to leave out the beatings.
1530   Population of England and Wales about 3 million. From 1530 to 1688, Heraldic Visitations took place throughout England, Wales and Ireland, to regulate and register the coats of arms of nobility and gentry and boroughs, and to record pedigrees as a kind of upper class census. These tours of inspection were undertaken by Kings of Arms or junior officers of arms (or Heralds), as deputies. A survey of 1530 to 1563 covered the area of Northumberland, Durham, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumberland and Cheshire and was (probably) conducted by Lawrence Dalton, accompanied by William Colbarne. From Wikipedia.
1534   (National) Acts of Supremacy. Two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559, establishing King Henry VIII and subsequent monarchs as supreme head of the Church of England. Prior to 1534, the supreme head of the Church had been the Roman Catholic Pope. The Wiki summarises the Acts.
1538   Parish Registration. Following Cardinal Worsley's regulation from 1497 concerning the recording of baptisms, Henry VIII implemented the registration of all baptisms. In the reign of Philip and Mary (in the following century), it was directed that an annual summary should be made of all parochial registration, to ascertain the number of births, burials and marriages, as well as the number of offences. During Cromwell's Protectorate, he decreed that there ought not be a registration of baptisms, only an authenticated version of births of all denominations, and that the whole should be looked upon as a civil rather than religious act. This was discontinued after the reign of Charles II, until all marriages, births and burials were required to be registered by William III. Every Parish was compelled to register births within five days and every burial, whether or not buried in a churchyard. This continued until 52, George III, when baptisms, marriages and burials required to be registered. The House of Lords had struck out the requirement to include births. These details were sourced from JND's newspaper cuttings, originally from The Mirror.
According to the 'Wainwrights of Penistone Parish' (Rootsweb genealogy site), 'Churches began recording baptisms, marriages, and burials in parish registers in England this year. The civil requirement to do this did not begin until 1837.'
1542   Organ bequeathed to Penistone Church by Richard Wattes. This was the first organ to be installed in our church. See the Church History page.
1547   Survival of PGS after the abolition of the chantries by Edward VI. Many schools across the country failed but, in Penistone, lands which had paid for the chantry chapels were transferred to the school and helped it to continue. See South Yorks Timescapes.
c. 1550   Gunthwaite Barn built by Godfrey Bosville, Lord of the Manor of Gunthwaite. It is a timber-framed building of a type known as 'King Post' and it is 165 feet (50.3m) long by 43 feet wide (13.1m) with a height of 30 feet (9.1m). Wooden pegs hold the great timbers in place. The stone stable block a few yards away was built in 1685 by the later Godfrey Bosville. He and his wife Bridgit's initials are carved on the door lintel and on the porch of Midhope Chapel which they renovated in 1705. Midhope was another Bosville manor.
1551   Influenza Epidemic, throughout the country. The population of England and Wales was just over 3 million.
1555   Heavy Rainstorms bring famine.
1556   Bubonic Plague. which this time continued until 1563. It had hit the country several times before, notably in 1348 (on its second prominent visit) as 'The Great Pestilence' and again 1361 - 1362. It would also return in 1578. Eyam in Derbyshire was hit by the plaque in 1665. Wikipedia lists the world epidemics.
1559   'William Turton left £1 16s 8d out of Lands in Bagden towards the foundation of a Free Grammar School in Penistone'. Tuition would have taken place in part of Penistone Church before the school building was erected, where the HSBC bank is today. From an 1890 source referring to a time before when the school was re-built at Kirk Flatt: 'An inscription over the door states that it was erected in 1392'. Ref 19 p312.
1569   Lord Nelson public house built at Hoylandswaine but it would not have been known by that name originally as our national hero Lord Horatio Nelson who triumphed over the French in the sea Battle of Trafalgar would not be not born until 1758.
1572   The first compulsory Local Poor Law tax was imposed, making the alleviation of poverty a local responsibility.
1576   Manor Farm built in Roughbirchworth.
1578   Bubonic Plaque. Another epidemic returns to the country.
1580   The first Corn Mill to be built in Thurlstone, by Bosville. Ref 11. It was rebuilt in 1761. Ref 17 p54.
1582 24th Feb Calendar Change. The 4th October was followed by 15th October to bring the calendar into agreement with the seasons, causing riots in some places. People protested that their lives had been shortened. The Julian Calendar had been in general use in Europe and Northern Africa from 46BC until this year, when Pope Gregory XIII promulgated his Gregorian Calendar. The process of designing the new calendar had started in 1372 when the pope commissioned an astrologer to look into the matter. The astronomer died before he could complete the work. The intention was to correct accumulated errors in the religious calendar (11 minutes per year) from the Council of Nicæa, AD 325. The Papal Bull defined the modern calculation for Leap Years. Whilst the Catholic countries quickly adopted the new calendar, it was not introduced into England and its dominions until 1752. Russia did not change over until 1918. See an English translation of the Papal Bull 'Inter Gravissimas' and particularly 1751/1752.
1584   Cat Hill House built.
1586   Wortley Hall rebuilt by Sir Richard Wortley. Wortley hall was the ancestral home of the Earls of Wharncliffe. Sir Richard's grandfather, Sir Thomas Wortley, lived in what was believed to be an earlier version of Wortley Hall in 1440. Alnus de Wortley was the earliest recorded Wortley in the 'Pipe Rolls' of 1165. This is from a leaflet obtainable from Wortley Hall. Sir Richard had owned two manors, Babworth and Bollom, both close to East Retford. He died in 1603. See 1591, below.
, ,   Bubonic Plaque. An epidemic hits Chesterfield. Crops all fail.
, ,   General Famine in England. This gave rise to the Poor Law.
1591 15th Aug Sir Francis Wortley born, the first son of Sir Richard Wortley (item above). He was a JP in the West Riding, from 1614 to at least 1641 and was a Member of Parliament for East Retford c.1624-5. He was said to be a ruthless encloser of land, causing disputes in the area. According to 'Percy’s Reliques' (old poems), the satirical ballad ‘The Dragon of Wantley’ is said to have celebrated the success by Penistone parishioners in a lawsuit against Wortley concerning a dispute about tithes, he being the 'dragon'. Others thought that it related to an unconnected incident. He was a strong Royalist during the Civil War and commanded troops in battle. He died in 1665 and £150 was benefited to the poor of Tankersley and Wortley. See Wortley, Sir Francis at the History of Parliament. See also 1647.
1593   Bubonic Plaque. Another epidemic returns to the country.
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate English calendar for year: Time & Date

PENISTONE (As described in the 1914 Penistone Almanack)

Or Peniston, the town on the Pen or hill - an etymology fully justified by its situation. In the Doomsday Survey, commenced in 1080 and completed in 1086, Penistone is referred to three times, being spelt Pangeston, Pengestone, and Pengeston.

It can certainly lay claim to antiquity. It was occupied by Britons, Romans, and Saxons in turn, and in ro66 was owned by Ailric. In 1069 it was devastated by the Conqueror, and was lying waste in 1086.

It was given to Lacey, who had it divided into two manors, both of which were sub-infended soon afterwards to Swein, who, in turn, left them to his son. The family of de-Peniston held one the manors, from which it descended in turn to the Clarels - one of whom was the founder of the Grammar School un 1392 - Fitzwilliams and Foljambes.

The Wordsworths of Water Hall, who lived here in the reign of Edward III, were ancestors of the poet of that name. The market was granted in 1699, The descendants of Ailric built a church at Penistone soon after the Conquest. Formerly it had two Vicars, who each had equal rights to the church. Geoffrey de Loudham, vicar in 1229, afterwards became Archbishop of York. The present building appears to date from the 15th century, and
is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The living is the gift of the Macdonald (Bosville) family.

The town is making steady progress. The population has increased from 3071 in 1901 to 3408 in 1911. Penistone is an important railway centre, being a junction for the G. C. and L. & Y. Railway Companies.

It is 177 miles from London, 28 from Manchester, 12 and a half miles from Sheffield, 13 and a half miles from Huddersfield, and 7 and a half miles from Barnsley.

Royalty During This Period
The Normans came to govern England following one of the most famous battles in English history: the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Four Norman kings presided over a period of great change and development for the country. The Domesday Book, a great record of English land-holding, was published; the forests were extended; the Exchequer was founded; and a start was made on the Tower of London.

When William the Conqueror died, his eldest son, Robert, became Duke of Normandy while the next youngest, William, became King of England. Their younger brother Henry would become king on William II's death. Read about the Normans at The British Monarchy.

In religious affairs, the Gregorian reform movement gathered pace and forced concessions, while the machinery of government developed to support the country while Henry was fighting abroad. Four million farthings English Farthings were put in circulation in the time of King Edward I, authorised by the Patent Rolls of 1222. See The British Monarchy.

The Normans
  • 1066 - 1087, William I 'The Conqueror'
  • 1087 - 1100, William II (Known as William Rufus)
  • 1100 - 1135, Henry I 'Beauclerc'
  • 1135 - 1154, Stephen and Matilda
The Angevins
  • 1154 - 1189, Henry II 'Curtmantle'
  • 1189 - 1199, Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart')
  • 1199 - 1216, John Lackland
The Plantagenets
  • 1216 - 1272, Henry III
  • 1272 - 1307, King Edward I 'Longshanks'
  • 1307 - 1327, King Edward II
  • 1327 - 1377, Edward III
  • 1377 - 1399, Richard II (Murdered 1400)
The Lancastrians and Yorkists
  • 1399 - 1413, Henry IV (Lanc)
  • 1413 - 1422, Henry V (Lanc)
  • 1422 - 1461, Henry VI's first reign (Lanc)
  • 1461 - 1470, Edward IV's first reign (York)
  • 1470 - 1471, Henry VI's second reign (Lanc)
  • 1471 - 1483, Edward IV's second reign (York)
  • 1483 (April to June), Edward V (York)
  • 1483 - 1485, Richard III (York)
The Tudors
  • 1485 - 1509, Henry VII
  • 1509 - 1547, Henry VIII
  • 1547 - 1553, Edward VI
  • 1553 (10th to 19th July), Lady Jane Grey
  • 1553 - 1558, Mary I
  • 1558 - 1603, Elizabeth I
  • 1603 - 1625, James I (next timeline 1600 to 1700)

Sources Used in the Timeline
The Books:

Some small details were added from 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone & District', 2006, from leaflets describing local walks and anecdotal remarks from Penistone people. Where information is anecdotal, it has been marked as such.

Take a look at 'A History of the County of York', which goes right back to the earliest invasions, especially in 'Before the Norman Conquest.'

Back Top Home   Claudian: "The man who covets is always poor."