Timeline of History in the Penistone Area


AD 1700 - AD 1800
Year Date Event
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate an English calendar for the year: Time & Date
1701   Population of England and Wales was 5,057,000.
  DatestoneUpper floor extension added to one end of the Society of Friends (Quakers) Meeting Place, Quaker Bottom, High Flatts, which had been converted from a barn (see 1697). Stables added below. Joseph Bayley was an important local land owner in the 17th century, whose deed gift left the Meeting House and Burial Ground to a number of local Quakers in 1701. Re-set into the rear of the current meeting house, a door lintel can be found with the inscription shown here, referring to the man and his wife Elizabeth. See the Quaker page.
1702   John Ramsden of Batley appointed Master at Penistone Free Grammar School, to teach 'all the rudiments of the Latin and Greek Tongues, with the Rhetoric' to the 'Grammar Scholars' and English and Latin to 'the poorer sort'. See PGS Archive
1703 9th March Samuel Wordsworth bequeathed £400 for Penistone Church and Free Grammar School, and £100 for the poor of the parish. 'One-fifth of the rents is applicable to the use of the most poor aged and infirm inhabitants of the parish, not being common beggars; two-fifths to the Vicar, provided he preach every Lord's day, forenoon and after, in the parish church, and also preach a sermon on the 24th of June ; and the other two-fifths are to be paid to the master and usher of the free grammar school, provided they teach their scholars the Assembly's Catechism, but if they neglect so to do, then such shares to be bestowed on the Vicar.' Ref 4. pp. 321, 322.
24th Nov. A Great Storm lasting two days afflicted the country, covering at least south of the Trent. Gales and thunderstorms caused chaos and great damage. 21 people were killed in London's streets and scores drowned in the Thames. Thirteen warships were wrecked and more than two thousand seamen lost their lives. Daniel deFoe took a horse ride in Kent after the storm and counted no fewer than 1,107 houses and barns blown down, with 17,000 trees torn up by the roots. The death-roll throughout England was great, with at least 5,000 people dead. Ref 7
1705   Midhope Chapel renovated by Godfrey 'Justice' Bosville (High Sheriff of Yorkshire), son of Godfrey Bosville Lord of the Manor of Gunthwaite, the chapel having fallen into a 'ruinous state'. Godfrey and his wife Bridgit's initials 'BGB' are carved on the door lintel of the porch which was built as part of the renovations. Apart from the porch and belfry, the exterior is much the same as when it was built in 1368 but Bosville's carpenters had cut through tie beams of the roof trusses, causing bulges in the north wall and butresses had to be fitted to shore it up. The interior is mostly the work of Bosville. He installed box pews, the west gallery and a Jacobean pulpit from the earlier church. See 1368 and 1690.
1707   The Kingdom of Great Britain created. This was a new sovereign state merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland.
  Tax Repealed - For the registration of baptism, marriage and deaths.
1710   Bell-ringers paid only 15 shillings 'for the whole year on Sundays'. Otherwise they were typically paid between 5s and 7s for such as Coronations, Thanksgiving Days and other events. This same year, a new clock face was affixed to Penistone Church. Ref 26.
1712   A Wet Year, resulting in poor and rotten harvests.
1714   One of Penistone Church's bells, marked as 'Te Deum Laudamus 1714' (We Praise Thee O God), cast this year. See the Church History page.
  Cattle diseases in England. It was a sickly time.
1715   Epidemics in England of Smallpox and Measles.
1716   Rebuilding of Penistone Grammar School completed, probably due to the success of the new market which had been given a Royal Charter in 1699. The school building remained in use until 1893. See PGS Archive and S Yorks Timescape.
1720   Midhope Pottery established by William Gough at Pothouse Fold, Midhope. He expanded it to include seven dwellings and several kilns ('potbanks') and drying sheds. Most of the site is under the reservoir now but four dwellings survive. Weston Park Museum in Sheffield holds a representative collection of earthenware made here. The pottery made a wide range of goods which were sold all over South Yorkshire, including jars, pots, chimney pots, plates, &c. Gough also set up two wells; one for the pottery and another which was the only source of drinking water in the hamlet until 1919 when Underbank Reservoir was built.
1722   Smallpox Epidemic raging throughout the land.
1724   Poor Harvests and Famine, in England, which lasted for around seven years.
1726 - 27   Heavy Snows.
1728   A Cold Summer.
1726   John Parkin's House built in Market Place, Penistone. In the 20th century, it was used for more than seventy years as Fieldsend's greengrocer shop, later to be Beever's. Ref 16. After that it changed hand more than once as a cafe and finally has become the Cinnamon Spice Indian restaurant. The original entrance might be on the north side (now a ginnel). A disputed waterway running by the house led to a sketch map being made in 1749 , which has been much reproduced in Almanacks and other local books.
Sept. Penistone Races held on this day. Races were held between 1726 and 1730 on the Race Common, what we would now think of as the top part of Cubley. Mr Brownhill's book, 'The Penistone Scene' (p78), gives the date as 23rd, whilst the 1925 Almanac (p145) gives it as the 22nd. In 1728, a Mr Garforth, minister of Midhope Chapel, 'won the plate' (an amount of takings) of £3 by betting on a horse from Lancashire. An avenue in Cubley remembers the event by its name of Racecommon Avenue.
1732   Midhopestones School built, in a time of growth and relative prosperity in the area.
12th April Will of Josias Wordsworth provides £200 for teaching poor girls to read and work. Later paid to the mistress of the National School, Church Street (currently the Busy Bees nursery building), for teaching twenty free scholars.
1734   Hexagonal Way Marker Stone set up at Underbank. This was on the old salters' route to Rotherham. This stoop was very unusual for being hexagonal. As with the more usual four-sided stoops, the convention was for the traveller to turn right to follow the inscribed direction.
From Stocksbridge History Society website: 'From 1733, the overseers of the highways were directed by the West Riding Justices of the Peace to erect Guide Stoops at remote crossroads, five years later in 1738 a second order stated that miles should also be inscribed on any new Stoops. The front face shown directs the traveller to Sheffield and Rotherham via Greenmoor, the face to the right is inscribed with Barnsley and Pontefract, the date of 1734, and Doncaster which directs the traveller towards Oxspring then Via Bower Lane to Coates Farm and then on towards Keresforth.'
  Earthquake felt in England.
  Willow Bridge in Oxspring was built around this time as a pack horse bridge. A lane opposite St Aidan's Church leads to the bridge. Ref 17 p84.
1740   Dog and Partridge, Bord Hill. From their website:
'Situated on the old medieval salt way route, this isolated Inn has a history that can be traced back to the Elizabethan period. Originally a farmhouse and alehouse, supplying shelter and refreshment for travelers crossing the hostile moors of the Pennines. Originally known as Border Hill House owned by the Gothard family, the Inn became known as the Dog and Partridge on receipt of its first licence in 1740. Since that time it has been under the ownership of many local land-owning families such as the Pilkingtons of Chevet Hall who still own the surrounding grouse moors today.'
'Haunted Stories':
'The Dog and Partridge is reputedly visited by ghosts from the past. The most frequent ghost is said to be one William Turner who was the Landlord of this establishment from 1917-1923. People often remark that they have witnessed an old man sitting in the easy chair next to the fire. The pub was used as a temporary mortuary in the past, bodies were brought in from the moors and nearby areas awaiting removal by the authorities.'
Listed in 1822 with Benjamin Harrap as victualler. See the Inns History page.
  Doncaster - Barnsley - Penistone - Woodhead road turnpiked this year. This was the ridgeway that went via Cranberry crossroads and Hartcliff. The current A628 road between Penistone Bridge ('Bridge End') and Fullshaw Bottom replaced it in 1840 to make the gradients easier for horse-drawn vehicles by avoiding Hartcliffe Hill.
  Whooping Cough prevalent in England, into 1741.
1743   Church of England inquiry. It was recorded that 200 communicants (confirmed Anglicans) live in Denby. 'In the chapelry of Denby there are 130 families, only nine of which are Quakers. There are no papists or other kinds of dissenters.'
1751   Population of England and Wales was 5,772,000.
The first part of transition from the Julian Calendar to adopt Pope Gregory's re-alignment of the calendar (from 1582), under the British Calendar Act of 1750 aka Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (wiki). Catholic countries had already adopted it but Protestant countries had been slow to adopt. Before this year, Lady Day, 25th March (the 'Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin') was the starting day of the new year and earlier dates would 'belong' to the previous year. For example, Wm Shakespeare died 23rd April 1616 and it would be written as 23rd April 1615-16 but if he had died a month later, it would be written as 23rd May 1616. The Act moved the start of the year to 1st January (as already established in Scotland and other places), making 1751 the shortest year on record. Note that the UK tax year is still based on the old New Year, starting 6th April, i.e. Lady Day adjusted for the lost days of the calendar change. Lady Day and the Quarter Days were of importance for legal agreements, see 1752 (next item) and the notes about quarter days at the bottom of the Timeline page.
  A Cold and Wet Summer.
1752 Calendar

Continuing the changeover to the Gregorian calendar in the British Empire, Wednesday 2nd September this year was followed by Thursday 14th September. This caused widespread protest but mostly because their taxes were not adjusted and they were expected to pay a full year’s tax, in spite the year having only 354 days. Others thought that their lives had been shortened by eleven days. From the next year on it settled down into the pattern which we now regard as normal. See notes at the bottom of this page, also interesting article 1 and interesting article 2 on calendars. The wiki might also be of interest.
1753   Coach house built at Wortley. From the Wortley Arms website: 'The Wortley Arms was originally built as a coach house in 1753 at a cost of 188 pounds and 66 shillings (etc.)' See Wortley Arms.
  Major improvements to St Leonard's Church at Wortley. A tower and vault were built and the chancel enlarged, for Edward Wortley Montagu of Wortley Hall. The first mention of a church in Wortley was 1318. See 1811.
1755   The second bell 'Venite Exultimus Domino' of the six-bell carrilon of Penistone Church was taken to Ludlam Bell Founders of Rotherham for re-casting. Ref 26. See the Church History page.
1756   Agreement reached about the position of three Boundary Stones marking the boundary between Hunshelf and Oxspring.
1758 25th April Penisale Yew Tree Torched. St Mark's Day is the day when a careless Bradfield man set fire to an ancient yew tree near a river, the girth of which had been measured as 25 feet, and effectively lost us the location of Penisale market. The tree was in 'Alderman's Head Grounds ... under which the court for the Manor of Penisale had been held from time immemorial'. By tradition, the green plot that it stood on had been the place of Penisale Market under a charter granted to Sir Elias de Midhope on 8th June 1290, '... for a market on Tuesdays and a fair on the eve-day and morrow of St Barnabas (11th June)'. The market was for cloth which was hung on tenters fixed to the tree. The tree was accidentally burnt down on this date by the Bradfield man who had lit a fire inside the tree to keep himself warm while fishing. The fire burnt for five days. There is some doubt about the exact location of the tree and the Penisale Market but the late Prof. David Hey had favoured Langsett. See 1290.
1761   Thurlstone Corn Mill rebuilt (on the Z - bend). It was partly demolished in 1959 to make the road wider and the remaining part was made into a house. The earlier one had been built by Bosville in 1580. Ref 17 p54.
1763   Penistone Cloth Hall and Shambles built for £800 by Josias Wordsworth, designed by renowned Yorkshire architect, John Platt. (Ref 17 p8). Mr Wordsworth called it 'the Market House' (most of which is now Clark's Chemist) and it was built where, on Mr Wordsworth's earlier plans, was called the 'sheds' (Ref 13). Previous to this, a room over the Grammar School (nearby on Kirk Flatts at the time) had been used as a Cloth Hall. The venture failed and the building was adjusted to house several shops. One part became the printing office of James Henry Wood, author of 'Remarkable Occurrences and Interesting Dates', also the Penistone Almanacs. Kirk Flatts is an area of land from the current Royal Brirish Legion to Cockpit Lane.
  The Society of Friends build a Meeting Place at Lumbroyd, just off Chapel Lane above Penistone Green. A wall stone by the associated burial ground says the Meeting Place was used from 1763 to 1847, demolished 1859. Lumbroyd is a typical Quaker burial ground in a small, walled plot of land surrounded by trees. See my Quaker page.
- 1767
  Cannon Hall was enlarged with the addition of wings during this period by John Carr, the premier mid-Georgian architect working in Yorkshire, with interior joinery by the well-known local craftsman, William Thornton. The only daughter of Robert Hartley sold Cannon Hall to John Spencer, who was the eldest son of William and Christiana Spencer. John owned Cannon Hall until 1775 when he died unmarried at the age of 57, ending the male line of the Spencer family. John's sister Ann Spencer became the second wife of Walter Stanhope, of Horsforth. Their only son Walter, (born 4th February 1749) became principal heir to his uncle John Stanhope, Esq., of Horsforth, barrister-at-law and familiarly known as Lawyer Stanhope, who died in 1769. Out of grateful regard for his uncle's memory, having inherited the Horsforth estates from him, his name was legally changed 10th February 1776 to Walter Spencer Stanhope by 'Sign Manual' (which appears to mean 'royal signature'). The last member of the Stanhope-Spencer family, Elizabeth, sold the house to Barnsley Council in 1951.
See 'A History of Cawthorne' by Charles Pratt MA, Vicar of Cawthorne, the Stanhope family tree and Wikipedia. Please also take a look at: 'The Letter-Bag of Lady Elizabeth Spencer-Stanhope - Volume 1' (Gutenberg free ebook).
1764   Court case concerning the water supply to mill wheels, between Amyor Riche of Hornthwaite mill and the Waltons of the oil mill. A weir constructed by the Waltons to supply their mill caused an accumulation of 'wrack and debris' which reduced the water supply to Riche's mill to a mere trickle. Sometimes the mill wheels would not work for a whole day. The case was settled out of court, through an agreement to deal with the wrack. The corn mill ceased operation in 1911. From Andreas Sarker's Thurlstone page at Rootsweb.
1764   An Exceptionally Cold February.
1766   A Severe Winter in England with snow many feet thick.
1767   The River Don overflowed at Penistone, causing great damage. According to Ross's Annual Register.
1768   First 'substantial organ' for Penistone Church, bought by public subscription. Ref 1.
1770 Aug Ronscliff Silver Mine, Cawthorne, started in August. Eight ounces of silver was taken from one pound of ore at the silver mine. The 1882 Penistone Almanack gives the same story but with the location as Gadding Moor, Gunthwaite.
1771   Road improvements. Royal Assent given in Parliament to an 'An Act for repairing and widening the Road leading from Penistone Bridge, in the County of York, to Grindleford Bridge, in the County of Derby, and the roads severally leading from Bamford Wood Gate, over Yorkshire Bridge, to the Guide Post on Thornhill Moor, to or near the Eight Mile Stone on Hathersage Moor, and to the village of Derwent, in the said County of Derby.' From the London Gazette, published 26th March 1771. This would become known as 'Mortimer's Road', referred to in 1777 below. Penistone Bridge is the one crossing the River Don at Bridge End, next to the Penistone Tyres company, after which Bridge Street is also named. The London Gazette website has a free, searchable database.
1777   Turnpiked Road - The Sheffield – Huddersfield – Halifax road was turnpiked this year. This means that a Turnpiked road was (supposed to be) kept in good condition for which travellers would pay a fee at various Turnpike Houses along the road towards their maintenance. Turnpike fees would vary according to the type of carriage, number of horses, etc.
  Mortimer Road. Hans Winthrop Mortimer of Caldwell Hall, Derbyshire was Lord of the Manor of Bamford and MP for Shaftesbury. After an Act of Parliament was passed in 1771 (see the entry above), he widened, improved and turnpiked an ancient packhorse route between North Derbyshire and the West Riding, originally known as Halifax Gate. This was a time when coach travel was becoming more popular and better roads were needed. His improved route was between Grindleford in Derbyshire and Penistone Bridge over the River Don at Bridge End. It became known as 'Mortimer's Road'. Unfortunately, the road failed as a business venture and he died bankrupt in 1807. 'Mortimer Road - The Turnpike that Failed' is a book by Howard Smith which can be viewed in Penistone Library. See the Cubley History page.
1780   The old Lock-upPenistone Lock Up built, opposite the current Royal British Legion location at the top of St Mary's Street. The Penistone and District Society notes had put the year of its construction as 1770. It was demolished without ceremony in 2010. See the Penistone Lock Up page for a look inside. It was a coincidence that I had a camera with me and was in the right place to grab some photos of the old Lock-up, on the quiet Sunday that it was demolished. Parts of its frontage were removed and built into the wall by a new roundabout on St Mary's Street, to commemorate it. A plaque states: 'Original Facade to Penistone Gaol 1780 to 1837'. The new Gateway buildings of 2013-14 also incorporated some features representing the Lock-up, in approximately the same place as the old jail.
1783   The Stamp Duty Act. A tax was reintroduced for recorded baptisms, marriages and burials. This was similar to the tax which was repealed in 1706.
1784 23rd Jan Death of Godfrey Bosville Esq. of Gunthwaite, aged 66 years. From a plaque in Penistone Church.
1786   Mr Jonathan Wood appointed as master of Penistone Grammar School this year. He held the office for about half a century.
5th April Mr John Shewabell, landlord of the Rose and Crown, died this day aged 67. From his gravestone in Penistone churchyard.
  Thurlstone Sunday School begun this year and opened 1788. It was built by public subscription. Ref 5.
  Earthquake felt in the North of England.
  Netherfield Independent Chapel dates from this year, later to be called 'Netherfield Congregational Church'. The archive records for 'Thurlstone Netherfield United Reform Church' (its name from 1973) describes it as a dissenters' chapel for Thurlstone, with Protestant dissenters in Thurlstone dating from about 1752 onwards. At this time, Thurlstone had a larger population than Penistone. In 1981, its congregation was merged with St Paul's Methodist Chapek on the High street and thw build passed into private ownership as a dwelling. Its graveyard was largely built over for a residents' car park and the remaining area marked as private land and left to the weeds. See the relevant Archive page and my Thurlstone Views page.
Oct Penistone Association for the Preservation of Public Peace and a gentleman of property, Mr Hans Busk of Bull House, subscribed a considerable sum of money to promote their design.
1788   Netherfield Chapel opened on Huddersfield Road 'From an original gift of £25'. Ref 16. Its local congregation started in 1786 with religious meetings were held at the home of Mr William Moorhouse in Thurlstone. Two founders were Joseph Ross and his brother John Ross. Ref 17 p39. According to 'Off the Record' (West Yorks Archives), 'Thurlstone Netherfield Independent Church' was established in 1784 by worshippers who had attended services in Huddersfield, held by Rev Henry Venn. The chapel features a fine example of a rose window, overlooking Huddersfield Road. In the 1960s, the hall accessible from Huddersfield Road was used by Penistone Grammar School for drama classes. The chapel closed in 1981 and was converted into a dwelling. Its graveyard was partly re-used as a car parking area and the remainder fell into disarray, with 'Private' signs put up. See also 1882. See also the Chapels page.
  First Denby Dale Pie, to commemorate King George III's (temporary) recovery from madness. It was baked at the White Hart pub and contained two sheep and twenty fouls, to be served to villagers in the field behind. The King's illness returned and after a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, the unlovely George IV, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Denby Dale was originally called Denby Dyke where the roads connecting Barnsley, Shepley and Wakefield meet. See also 1815 (the second DD Pie), Huddersfield Examiner, Information Britain and Ref 20.
1793   Stamp Duty Imposed.
1799   Thurlstone Building Society formed. It merged in 1867 to become the Penistone and Thurlstone Building Society, later to merge with Leek and Westbourne B Soc and finally that merged with the Britannia Building Society, which still has an office in Penistone. In recent times, the Britannia B Soc merged with the Co-operative Bank but continued to operate under its own name. So there's a little bit of Thurlstone in the Co-op Bank. Ref 16.
Quick Links: Intro - 1000 - 1600 - 1700 - 1800 - 1900 - 2000 - Refs - Generate English calendar for year: Time & Date

Royalty During This Period
The Hanoverians came to power in difficult circumstances that looked set to undermine the stability of British society. The first of their Kings, George I, was only 52nd in line to the throne, but the nearest Protestant according to the Act of Settlement. Two descendants of James II, the deposed Stuart king, threatened to take the throne, and were supported by a number of 'Jacobites' throughout the realm. See The British Monarchy

The Kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707. This was a new sovereign state merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. the first British farthing was minted in 1714.

The Stuarts, from 1603 to 1714:

The Hanoverians, from 1714 to 1901:

Sources Used in the Timeline
The Books:

Some small details were added from 'An Explorer's Guide to Penistone & District', 2006, a few leaflets describing local walks and some anecdotal remarks from Penistone people. Where information is anecdotal, it has been marked as such.

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